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Ubat our (Ibil^ren ma^ be patriots 
we tell tbem of our jf atbers 





Two CoptEs Received 

JIJN. 14 1902 


cLaSS CL^XXa No. 

Copyright, IQ02, by 

All rights reserved. 

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Sauacvties Cbapter, Saugbters of tbe Bmericau IRcvolution, 












At the request of Saugerties Chapter, Daughters 
of the American Revokition, the author has attempt- 
ed to tell the story of the settlement and develop- 
ment of the town of Saugerties, basing this work 
upon papers contributed at various times to the 

He would acknowledge the assistance given him 
by that chapter, not only so far as it has been per- 
sonal, but more than this in its cultivation of a 
spirit of true patriotism which more than justifies its 
existence as the world may thus know that its very 
being calls attention to all our ancestors struggled 
for, suffered and sacrificed that they and their chil- 
dren might be forever free. 

He has attempted to tell how those ancestors 
lived their simple and sincere lives ; to set forth 
their manners, customs and pleasures; to record 
how they developed their young men and maidens 
into men and women physically, mentally and 
spiritually, and built the township we love. 

He has attempted to gather up their old Dutch 
ballads, folk songs, riddles, nursery rhymes and 
nonsense verses before it is forever too late. This 
has never been done, and it can not be done by 
the next generation. He here expresses his indebt- 


edness to the many friends whose assistance was 

In selecting the subjects for the ilkistrations he 
has chosen those alone which are connected with 
the town history. He attempted to secure a pic- 
ture of the first physician, but failed ; and sub- 
stituted his residence instead. The typical Dutch 
farm house is inserted because it is typical. No 
portrait of pastor Kocherthal exists, nor of the 
West Camp church. The monumental tablet is 
given instead. The house of Christian Myer is 
included for the reason that the home of the family 
from which came eighteen Revolutionary soldiers 
should be held in everlasting remembrance. The 
first minister (except Kocherthal) and the first mer- 
chant, with his residence and store, are included ; 
but the first lawyer could not be. There was none 
until shortly before the date at which this story 
stops. And the author regrets that the book has 
not reached the standard of his wishes, efforts and 





























Introductory and Descriptive .... 1 

A Decisive Battle 7" 

The Earliest Records 14 

The Coming of the Palatines .... 27 

The Palatines at the Camp 34 

The Palatines Find Homes 42 

The West Camp Church 50 

The Palatine Leader 55 

Sixty Formative Years 60 

Saugerties Village Before the Revolu- 
tion 67 

Katsbaan Before the Revolution ... 75 
Cedar Grove Before the Revolution . 83 
Churchland and Plattekill Before the 

Revolution 89 

Saxton and Asbury Before the Revolu- 
tion 96 

Maiden and West Camp Before the 

Revolution 104 

Glasco and Flatbush Before the Revo- 
lution Ill 

The Legion of Honor 118 

The Revolutionary War 126 

Continuation of the Tappen Journal . 133 

The Campaign of 1776 140 

The Campaign of 1777 147 

The Campaigns of 1778 and 1779 . .156 

Patriotic Divines 163 

An Indian and Tory Raid 168 

In Captivity in Canada 177 



XXVI. Captain Snyder's Escape . . . .183 

XXVII. After the Revolution 191 

XXVIII. Educational Conditions After the 

Revolution 197 

XXIX. The Country Doctor 203 

XXX. The Old Farm Houses 210 

XXXI. Farm Life in Olden Time . . . .218 
XXXII. The Indispensable Loom ... . 226 

XXXIII. Social Life in Olden Time . . . . 222 

XXXIV. Interesting Documents pf the Revo- 

lution 239 

XXXV. The Katsbaan Church 245 

XXXVI. The Beaver Creek 257 

XXXVII. The Days of Sloops 262 

XXXVIII. The Trip of the Clermont . . . . 268 
XXXIX. The Formation of the Town ... 275 

XL. Beginning to Grow 283 

XLI. Building the Factories and Open- 
ing the Quarries 291 

XLII. Military Leaders 299 

XLIII. The Saugerties Bard 310 

XLIV. ''Katsbaan" 316 

XLV. Old Dutch Ballads, Rhymes and 

Folk Songs 324 

XLVI. Saugerties Chapter, Daughters of 

the American Revolution . . . 346 
Appendix — 

Saugerties Soldiers of the Revolution . 349 
The Graves of the Patriots 353 



Site of Old Sawyer's Mill 6 

Ravine Where the Indians Fought 11 

The Oldest House in Town 24 

The Kocherthal Tablet 57 

The Post Tavern 12 

The Katsbaan Church of 1732 76 

The Persen Residence and Store 80 

The Cedar CHpje 96 

Steene Herte and Fountain 101 

The House of Major Dan Wolven 106 

Field Where Capt. Snyder was Captured . . .168 

Residence of Dr. Kiersted 208 

A Typical Dutch Farm House 215 

CorneUus Persen 229 

Rev. George Wilhelmus Mancius 247 

House of Christian Myer 359 




The town of Saugerties is the northeast town 
of Ulster county, New York, and extends from 
the centre of the channel of the Hudson river 
to the brow of the Catskills. Its northern limit 
is the boundary line with Greene county, and 
on the south the town of Ulster where the 
Plattekill empties into the Esopus. Its area is 
about 30,000 acres, and its population was in 
1900 9,754. This had decreased in the preced- 
ing twenty-five years from 10,934 in 1875. 

The town was organized from the town of 
Kingston, April 5, 181 1, and is thus of the 
Nineteenth Century. But for more than one 
hundred and twenty-five years preceding it had 
been a large factor in what constituted the 
town of Kingston, and Katsbaan and West 
Camp were known throughout the colonies 
before the Revolution ; the latter as the scene 
where was colonized the first German emigra- 


tion to America in 1710, in an ill starred project 
of the British Government for the production 
of naval stores, which failed, and the former as 
the location of a widely-known country store, 
so widely, in fact, that Burgoyne had selected 
Katsbaan as the site of one of his three 
camps between Albany and Kingston upon his 
intended march from the former city to New 
York. The others were Kack's Hackey (Cox- 
sackie) and Katskill (Leeds). It is needless to 
add that some men from Katsbaan assisted in 
dissuading him at a meeting they had with 
Burgoyne at Saratoga. 

The town occupies two distinct plateaus. 
The lower one extends from the hills along 
the Hudson to the mountain ridge, two peaks 
of which are respectively Mt. Airy and Mt. 
Marion. This ridge divides the town from 
north to south into two nearly equal portions. 

The eastern plateau lies upon strata of sand- 
stone and shale along its eastern border, with 
limestone ledges farther west. All these extend 
in a northerly and southerly direction. The 
upper, or western plateau lies upon a founda- 
tion of greywacke, commercially known as blue- 
stone, which has been for three-fourths of a 
century the source of the chief industry of the 

The town is well watered. Along the whole 
of its eastern border flows the Hudson. 


Through the southern half come the waters 
of the Esopus creek which have proceeded 
from their source in the heart of the Catskills 
for many miles in a southeasterly direction 
until they were free from the confinement of 
the mountains. When they reached the fertile 
plain in the town of Marbletown they coursed 
due north for thirty miles to Saugerties village, 
where, after watering as productive fields as 
the sun shines on, they empty into the Hudson. 
Through parts of the northwestern portion of 
the town the Cauterskill carries the rainfall 
of the Catskills to the river, and through the 
western part the Plattekill performs the same 
service. The Beaver drains the upper and 
lower plateaus in a ten mile course, and in the 
northeast the little, though historic Saw creek 
does like duty. It is a peculiarity that all of 
these streams except the Plattekill and Saw 
creek flow north. 

It is contemplated in this history to tell the 
story of the settlement of the town and its 
growth ; to show the nationality and character 
of those who were the pioneers, and from whom 
the people of the town descended until its 
development into a manufacturing centre upon 
the purchase of its immense water power at 
Saugerties in 1825. In carrying out this inten- 
tion the first important event will be the coming 
of the Palatines in 1710 and the story of the 


two churches which they founded at West 
Camp and Katsbaan ; the second, the service 
of townsmen in the French and Indian War, 
and the third, the story of their connection 
with the fight for our civil liberties. In this 
connection it may be said that the dangers to 
the patriot cause from the invasion of Bur- 
goyne in 1777 called into military service in 
the field during the summer and autumn of 
that year practically the whole male popula- 
tion, young and old, of the town capable of 
bearing arms. Even men who had been Tories 
at the beginning of the war were compelled to 
assist or leave the country. A few families did 
so and went to Canada. A few more remained 
loyal to the British Crown, but the most of 
those who had been opposed to the cause of 
the patriots in 1775 became, under the stress 
of events, at least nominal patriots. This will 
explain why names of certain Tories are found 
on the list of the patriots who served in the 

This town was included in the charter given 
to Kingston in 1667, and when, on the 19th 
day of May, 1687, Gov. Dongan issued the 
patent for the grant of the large territory to 
the freeholders of the town of Kingston in 
trust, which was for more than one hundred 
years known as "The Kingston Commons," it 
comprised all the town of Saugerties south and 


west of Sawyer's creek, with the exception of 
the four Meals and Hayes patents, until the 
bounds of the great Hardenbergh patent were 
reached at the foot of the Catskill mountains. 
Thus most of the early settlers derived the 
titles to their farms and homes from the trus- 
tees of Kingston Commons. 

Although a part of the town of Kingston, 
this town did not participate in its Indian 
troubles of 1655 to 1663. There is no cer- 
tainty of any permanent settler within the 
borders of the town of Saugerties at that time. 
The question of ** the old sawyer," or " little 
sawyer," will be. taken up in a subsequent 
chapter. But aside from him there is no rec- 
ord of a settler within this town before 1688, 
when Cornelius Lambertsen Brink acquired 
lands on the southern border of the town at 
the junction of the Plattekill and Esopus, and 
built the stone house still standing. He had 
been a captive taken at the massacre at Esopus 
(Kingston) in 1663. With twenty-two others 
he was rescued after a captivity among the 
savages of just three months. 

Nor were there any Indian troubles within 
the town except when, during the Revolution, 
the savages were incited by the Tories. Per- 
manent settlement was not made until after 
the treaties between the Indians and colonial 
Governors Stuyvesant and Andros had extin- 


guished all Indian titles, and thus the early- 
settlers were able to live without the dread of 
a nnidnight attack by a savage foe with all the 
horrors of the tomahawk and scalping knife. 

Indian villages did not exist within the bord- 
ers of the town. It was a sort of neutral ground 
between the Katskill Indians on the north and 
the Esopus Indians on the south. Evidences 
such as arrowheads, knives and axes of stone 
are continually found here which show it to 
have been in their occupancy. The journal of 
Capt. Martin Cregier in 1663 tells of the Indian 
maize plantation just north of the present vil- 
lage of Saugerties, and there are other evidences 
about town that Indians were often here. It 
is safe to say that no permanent Indian village 
existed within the limits of the town of Sau- 

In the earlier chapters of those to follow 
much will appear concerning an "old sawyer," 
or a " little sawyer" who is only known by that 
appellation. He had a sawmill at the mouth 
of the little stream still known as the Saw 
creek, and by the Dutch his mill was spoken 
of in the possessive case as " de zaagertje's," or 
the sawyer's. From this came the name of the 
stream on which his mill was erected, then of 
the locality, in time of the town and lastly of 
the village. 




" The Journal of the Esopus War," by Capt. 
Martin Cregier, describes the destruction of 
Wiltwyck (Kingston) by the Esopus Indians 
in 1663, the capture of many of the women 
and children, and the military expedition that 
effected their release. A detachment of the 
command, under Sergeant Niessen (Niese), 
proceeded to Saugerties, while the main force 
under Capt. Cregier tracked the savages and 
their captives up the Wallkill valley. Capt, 
Cregier's "Journal" says of Niessen's detach- 
ment : 

"July 12, 1663. Sergeant Niessen returned 
with his troops bringing one squaw and three 
children which they had captured. Examined 
the squaw. She answered that some Kattskill 
Indians lay on the other side near the Sager's 
Kill, but they would not fight with the Dutch. 
On the i6th, some Mohawks arrived and went 
to see the Esopus Indians, and fetched from 
them some captive Dutch women." There is 
a text for a long sermon here. It is one inci- 
dent in a story which had begun forty-five 


years before, and was to be continued one 
hundred years more until the power of France 
on this Continent would be overthrown under 
Montcalm at Quebec by the British under 
Wolfe. A crisis in that long struggle culmi- 
nated on the borders of our town of Saugerties. 
It is necessary to go back to the days of Hud- 
son to see why the Katskill Indians would not 
fight the Dutch, and the Mohawks compelled 
the Esopus Indians to release their Dutch cap- 

In August, 1609, Henry Hudson discovered 
the beautiful river which bears his name and 
ascended it as far as Waterford. While he was 
prosecuting his voyage Samuel de Champlain 
in Canada was carrying on the work begun by 
Jacques Cartier, and had just discovered lovely 
Lake Champlain, and was proceeding south 
upon its waters. Thus representatives of these 
two nations of Europe almost met. Almost, 
but not quite. Champlain retired to Quebec 
and Hudson returned to Europe to report 
to his employers. A trading company was 
formed in Amsterdam to prosecute the trade 
for furs along the river and a trading post was 
established about four miles south of Albany, 
and here the Dutch unconsciously prepared 
for the death grapple which their successors, 
the English, would have with the French for 
one hundred and fifty years until the Continent 


became the home, not of absolutism, but of 
freedom, by a masterly act of John Jacob 
Eelkens in 1618. 

In the opening h'nes of "The Song of Hia- 
watha" Longfellow sings : 

' ' In the vale of Tawasentha, 
In the green and silent valley, 
There he sang of Hiawatha." 

This green valley was on the west side of 
the Hudson, six miles south of Albany, at 
what is now Norman's Kill. And here in the 
spring of 1618, Eelkens, the commander of the 
trading post, assembled the representatives of 
the Five Nations and entered into a treaty of 
peace and amity with them which was never 
broken, though troubles and difificulties often 
arose. And to this amity the English suc- 
ceeded upon the passing of the province into 
their hands and the French, despite all their 
efforts, could never detach them, or weaken 
that friendship. In the words of representa- 
tives of these Indian tribes in 1737, one hun- 
dred and nineteen years after this, addressed 
to the English Governor of this province " In 
ancient times when our fore-fathers first met 
at this place we will tell you what happened 
before there was a house in this place, when 
we lodged under the leaves of the trees, the 
Christian and we entered into a covenant of 


friendship." John Fiske says of this treaty that 
" It was never violated or seriously infringed. 
The Five Nations were all more or less stead- 
fast allies of the Dutch, and afterwards of the 
English until 1763." 

The Indians of North America belonged to 
two great families, the Iroquois and the Algon- 
quin peoples. The seat of the former was the 
Mohawk valley and the lake region of New 
York. The five nations, or tribes, were savage 
and powerful warriors and dominated the Con- 
tinent. The tribes of the Hudson and of New 
England and Canada were Algonquins. But 
the aggressive Iroquois were forcing them into 
subjection and at last became their tributary 

Early in 1628 the Mohegans of the upper 
Hudson, the Hoosic and the Hoosatonic valleys 
were driven from their haunts by the Mohawks 
and an Indian war was begun. To resist their 
aggressions the Mohegans had allied them- 
selves with the Katskill tribe and the Esopus 
Indians and with other scattered bands along 
the upper waters of the Delaware and Scho- 
harie. But the terrible Maquas, or Mohawks, 
had pressed down the Catskill creek from Scho- 
harie on frequent raids. At last the Mohegans 
intrenched themselves at the junction of the 
Cauterskill and Catskill creeks and built another 
fort at Jefferson Flats, west of Catskill. These 








forts were stockades of logs set close to each 
other perpendicularly in the ground, and they 
remained long after the Dutch had settled the 

Tidings of their purpose and of their prepa- 
rations for defense reached the Mohawks and 
they determined once for all to subdue the 
river Indians. Down the Catskill creek from 
Schoharie they descended upon the Mohegans 
at their forts. The fighting was fierce and the 
Mohegans were driven out. A stand was next 
made at the spring along the Saugerties road 
to Catskill just where the watering-trough is 
standing above the Embocht school house. 
But the onset of the Mohawks was irresistible. 
They were driven down to the present Ulster 
county line and took refuge on Wanton Island 
in the Hudson, recently the site of the National 
Ice Company's ice house. Here they fought 
with the energy of desperation and the Mo- 
hawks were unable to dislodge them. The 
Mohawks withdrew and built their camp-fires 
quite a distance at one side and appeared to be 
thoroughly discomfited. The Mohegans were 
deceived into abandoning the island to fall 
upon their enemies, who, finding them at last 
on the main land, and taking them in flank and 
rear along the road to the present Smith's 
Landing, and in the ravine just east of the 
old Connelly blacksmith shop, fell upon them 


at dead of night with unearthly cries and with 
fearful slaughter. Most were killed and many 
were made prisoners. The power of the river 
Indians was forever broken and the Iroquois 
dominated the Continent. The tribes of New 
England and Canada submitted and an annual 
tribute of wampum and dried clams was exacted 
by the conquerors. 

Regularly every year this was collected. Two 
Indians would start from the Mohawk castle, 
proceed down the river of that name to the 
mouth of the Schoharie, paddle up that stream 
to its upper waters, then carry their birch bark 
canoe by a short portage to the upper waters 
of the Esopus creek and follow that stream to 
its mouth at Saugerties, collecting tribute as 
they went. Such was the prowess of the fear- 
ful Iroquois that no one molested the embassy. 
From Saugerties they paddled up the Hudson 
either to Roelof Jansen's Kill (Livingston 
creek) and ascended that stream, or followed 
the Hudson to the Hoosic river above Troy 
and entered the country of the New England 
Indians from thence. But wherever they went 
they were received with respect founded on the 
fear their reputation inspired. 

Many were the efforts made by the French 
to detach them from the Dutch and English. 
But down to the day in 1763, when Montcalm 
and Wolfe both went to the grave at Quebec 


and the flag of France on this Continent 
was forever furled, these efforts were unavail- 
ing. Did Gov. Stuyvesant or Gov. Andros 
negotiate a treaty with the Esopus Indians at 
Kingston? Some Mohawk chieftain was pres- 
ent to approve, or not. Did the Indians about 
New York city confer with the colonial author- 
ities? An Iroquois chief was there. Did New 
England ofificials negotiate with red men ? The 
consent of the Maquas was necessary. No 
wonder that the captive Katskill Indian told 
Capt. Creiger that her people would not fight 
the Dutch. Thus though Saugerties was neu- 
tral ground nevertheless on its borders occurred 
a battle of tremendous consequence to the 
future of America in its coming fight for free- 



In the preceding chapter it is said that a 
squaw informed Sergeant Niessen and his 
troops that "some Kattskill Indians lay on 
the other side near the Sager's Kill, but they 
would not fight with the Dutch." This is the 
earliest mention of the Sawyer's creek in the 
old records and is under the date of July 12, 
1663. It establishes the fact that the sawyer 
from whom the town took its name had had a 
mill there long enough before 1663 to name 
the little stream. 

The Indian treaties with Governors Stuy- 
vesant in 1658 and 1664, and Nicolls in 1665 
had extinguished the titles of the red men to 
the lands at Kingston and to the west and 
south of that place. The time had arrived 
when this should be done to the territory north. 
Therefore, in the spring of 1677, Governor Sir 
Edmund Andros summoned the Esopus Indians 
to a conference at Kingston with himself and 
the magistrates of the town. The meeting was 
held on the 27th of April, 1^77, and the follow- 
ing is the ofificial account of the proceedings: 


Conference Between Governor Andros and 
THE Esopus Indians. * 

Kingston, the 27th of Aprill, 1677. 

Present — His Honor the Governor, Capt. Salis- 
bury, Capt. Chambers, Mr. West and the Magis- 
trates, and Geo. Davit, Interpreter. 

His Honor, the Governor, asked the Esopus 
Sachems, Sewerakan, Pomerewague, Kaelcop, An- 
krop and the majority of the Esopus Indians, women 
as well as men and youths, whether they had any 
claims upon the land, occupied by us in pursuance of 
the agreement made with His Honor, Governor 
Nicolls, They went out and after some time spent 
in deliberation, Kaelcop said that they did not think 
they had sold land so far North, but they were well 
satisfied we should have it provided His Honor 
would give him a blanket, a shirt and a loaf of 
bread. The Governor then inquired whether it 
would satisfy them completely, to which he replied, 
''Yes, but if His Honor would add a piece of cloth 
it would be well." He and the Sachems and all the 
other Indians were told to point out, or describe the 
boundaries as they were to be now. They described 
them as follows : — Beginning at the Ronduyt Kil, 
thence to a Kil called Kahakasnik North along the 
hills to a Kil called Magowasinginck, thence to the 
second fall, Easterly to Frudeyachkanieck on the 
" Groote Revier," along the river South to Ronduyt 
Kil, with everything lying within these boundaries, 
good and bad, hills, valleys, waters, etc. 

Kaelcop further declared that he had ceded to 
the old sawyer his claim upon a kil called the 
Sawyer's Kil, and the land stretching up to the 
boundary of the land belonging to the Katskil 
Indians along the river as far as the mountains above. 


Whereupon His Honor, the Governor, asked the 
Sachems and all the other savages, old and young, 
whether this was so ; they should give a free and 
fearless answer. They replied it was so and nobody 
else had any claim upon the land. Questioned 
once more if they were satisfied with the aforesaid 
payment they said ''Yes, fully." His Honor then 
gave to Kaelcop in presence of all the others the 
articles agreed upon as full pay, to wit : A blanket, 
a piece of cloth, a shirt, a loaf of bread and baize 
for socks. All being well satisfied, His Honor said 
he intended to have the boundaries reviewed for 
better satisfaction and desired Kaelcop and some 
other Indians to go along and point out the land- 
marks for which they should receive extra pay. 
They accepted the proposition with thanks, and said 
they were ready to go at any time. 


Kaelcop, for the Amogarickakan family. 

Ankerop, for Kettsypowy. 

KuGAKAPO, for the Mahow family. 

Wengiswars, for the Kahatawis family. 

Pamiere Wack, Sachem ; Senera Kau, Sa- 
chem ; Mamarij Backwa, Sachem ; in 
the name of all Esopus Indians. 

In presence of His Honor and the undersigned : 

Thomas Chambers, Hendrick Jochemsen, 

G. Hall, Joris Davit, 

JoosT, Sylvester Salisbury, 

DiRCK Schepmoes, Will Rodeney, 

E. Whittaker, John West, 

Wessel TenBroeck, N. DeMeyer. 


Wm. La Montanye, Sec'y. 


Thus is recorded in this Indian treaty of 
1677 the fact that " the old sawyer" had secured 
an Indian title to the Saw creek not only, but 
to the land stretching from it to the lands of 
the Katskill Indians, and as far back as the 
mountains. The Indians always respected the 
treaty, and no trouble with the whites ever 
arose over the lands thus conveyed. So this 
old sawyer, so far as Indian title could make 
him, became the largest landholder the town 
ever had. At least 15,000 acres must have 
been conveyed him. But there is nothing to 
show that he ever sought confirmation of his 
title from the colonial authorities, and in fact 
no one knows the name of him who gave the 
name to the town of Saugerties. Nor has any 
investigation ever disclosed when he secured 
this Indian grant, nor when he first came here. 
Cregier's Journal shows the stream thus named 
fourteen years before the Andros treaty, or in 
1663, so that he must have been here as early 
as the first settlement of Kingston. For this 
sawmill must have been there long enough 
before that date to have named the little 
stream. The date mentioned there, July 12, 
1663, is the earliest mention of Sager's creek in 
any record. The entry in that "Journal" is 
given in the last chapter. 

On the 28th of August, 1683, Col. Thomas 
Dongan arrived in New York to be governor 


of the colony. In a few days he issued writs 
for the choice of representatives of the free- 
holders in a general assembly. On the 17th of 
October, 1683, this assembly met. It was the 
first meeting of representatives of the people 
in a legislative assembly in the colony of New 
York. At this first meeting of a legislature 
one of the first acts was to divide the province 
into counties, and twelve were created. One 
of these was Ulster. Its description includes 
these words " all the village neighborhoods and 
Christian habitations on the west side of the 
Hudson river from the Murderer's Creek to the 
Sawyer's Creek," thus having its southeast 
limit at the mouth of the creek entering the 
Hudson just above Cornwall, at the High- 
lands ; and its northeast in the present village 
of Saugerties where the Saw creek empties 
into the same river. Before the date of the 
organization of Ulster county, November i, 
1683, there is no record of a conveyance of 
land and, presumptively, no settler. 

This was not to remain so long. On the 
15th of April, 1685, George Meals, a resident 
of Albany, and Richard Hayes a resident of 
Kingston, and both in the British service, 
secured from the colonial authorities four con- 
siderable parcels of land in the town of Sau- 
gerties, the patents not being issued until May, 
1687. One of these was for a swamp of three 


hundred acres, now known as '* The Big Vly," 
situate in the north of the town and lying 
partly in Albany (now Greene) county. An- 
other was situate on "The Old Kings Road" 
along the Beaver creek, containing, the farm 
known as the Kemble place, and was of two 
hundred and fifty-two acres ; the third lay just 
north of the present village of Saugerties, on 
both sides of the Sawyer's creek, and contained 
two hundred and one acres and the fourth, the 
largest of all, was on both sides of the Esopus 
creek at its mouth and contained four hundred 
and forty-one and three-fourths acres. It was 
described to be at a place ** called The Sagier's." 
The bounds began on the Hudson just taking 
in the falls at the mouth of the Saw creek and 
proceeded in a direct line along the present 
Division street of Saugerties village to about 
the present bridge below the Geo. W. Wash- 
burn place which spans the Tannery brook. 
From thence it crossed the Esopus in a direct 
line and ascended the hill to a point just west 
of the Richard C. Washburn place. From 
thence it proceeded in a straight line until 
near the southerly bounds of the cemetery 
on Barclay Heights and thence to the river. 
November 22, 1687, George Meals and Sarah, 
his wife, conveyed all their interest in the 
patent to his partner, Richard Hayes, and on 
the same day Hayes sold his interest in this 


patent, so far as the south side of the creek 
was concerned, and also in the Big Vly, to John 
Wood. And on Oct. i, 1694, Sarah, wife of 
the late George Meals, conveyed to Wood the 
interest her husband and she had in the same 
and which he in his lifetime had sold to Wood. 
Then Richard Hayes and Goodwith, his wife, 
sold the remainder of the village patent to 
John Hayes, and on August 16, 1712, he con- 
veyed the same to John Persen. So far there 
had been no settlement on this tract. John 
Persen became a settler. He built a grist mill, 
established a ferry across the Esopus and in 
his will, in 1748, bequeathed house, lands, mill, 
negro slaves etc. to his wife. His daughter. 
Vannitje, was the wife of Myndert Mynderse 
who built the stone house on his estate which 
is now the residence of F. T. Russell, whose 
wife is a descendant. But up to the date of 
the purchase by Persen (1712) there is no evi- 
dence of any settler in the bounds of the 
village. This date is subsequent to the coming 
of the Palatines to West Camp, Oct. 4, 1710. 
The records of conveyances of real estate show 
that none of the Palatines settled in this village 
until some years later. So it seems clear that 
John Persen was the first settler within its 
bounds, unless the nebulous sawyer be excepted. 
John Persen was born in Kingston where he 
was baptized Sept. 2, 1683. He was the son 


of Sergeant Jan Hendricks Persen of the New 
Netherland army and Annetje Mattys, his wife. 
Both came to Kingston from Albany. John 
Persen m.arried Anna Catryna Post, daughter 
of Jan Jansen Postmael spoken of below. 
Cornelius Persen, who kept the store in Kats- 
baan, was a grand nephew of John. 

On May 19, 1687, the same month in which 
the Meals and Hayes patents were issued, Gov. 
Dongan granted a large territory of land to 
*' the Inhabitants and Freeholders of the town 
of Kincrston" for their benefit. This tract 
practically covered the present towns of Eso- 
pus, Ulster, Kingston and Saugerties, except 
what lay northeast of the Saw creek in the last- 
named town, for the triangle between that 
creek and the river in which is now West Camp 
and Maiden was then part of Albany county. 
The patent ordained and declared said inhab- 
itants and freeholders a body corporate and 
politic with succession forever, with full power 
to hold and convey real estate and personal 
property of every kind, and to sue and be sued 
in the corporate name, and provided for an 
annual election on the first Tuesday of March 
of twelve trustees, to hold ofTfice for one year. 
Thenceforth all applications for lands within 
the present town of Saugerties west of the Saw 
creek were to be made to the trustees of Kings- 
ton Commons instead of the colonial author- 


Now who was the first settler in this town ? 
In 1763 upon the whole territory north of the 
Esopus and within the village corporation of 
to-day there were less than a dozen families 
viz : Wilhelmus Burhans, Myndert Mynderse, 
Isaac Post, Egbert Schoonmaker, Samuel 
Schoonmaker, Hiskia Du Bois, Jan Post, 
Abraham Post, Petrus Myer, Johannes Myer 
and Jecobus Post. The most numerous of 
these families are the Posts. They were de- 
scended from Jan Jansen Postmael, spoken of 
above, who emigrated from Harlingen, in Fries- 
land, Holland ; married Jannitje Le Sueur, 
daughter of Francois Le Sueur, and settled in 
Harlem, New York. Afterwards he came to 
Kingston where his son married Cornelia Yssel- 
steyn in 1702. Their son Abraham, born in 
1708, married Maria, daughter of Myndert 
Schutt, who had the patent north of Maiden 
which will be described in a subsequent chap- 
ter, and Myndert Schutt had married Sarah, 
a sister of John Persen spoken of above. The 
Post families of the town were descended from 
Abraham, who was not born until 1708, and 
whose parents lived in Kingston. The first 
conveyance of land to Abraham Post bears 
date Feb. 28, 1735. 

Wilhelmus Burhans obtained his property in 
1740 from the Meals patent. He was the 
father-in-law of John Brink, Jr., and this place 


was known as the Brink place until very 
recently. It was at the mouth of the Saw 
creek on the Hudson and was the site of the 
mill of " the old sawyer." Myndert Mynderse 
obtained his property, as said above, through 
the deed to his father-in-law, John Persen in 
1712 ; Egbert Schoonmaker's deed is dated 
Jan. 6, 1756; Samuel Schoonmaker's dates to 
March 4, 1734; Hiskia Du Bois, March 2, 
1722 ; while Petrus and Johannes Myer were 
descendants of the Palatines of October, 17 10. 

Passing over the town the same conditions 
prevail. Aside from those of Palatine origin, 
and thus Germans and not earlier than 1710 
there were the following early Dutch settlers : 
Harmanus Hommel on the Luther Myer farm 
in Hommelville, March 4, 1727; Evert Wyn- 
koop at the same date bought what is now the 
Rio Alto Stock Farm ; and Arie Newkirk 
bought a part of the Meals and Hayes tract 
along the Old Kings Road on the same day. 
Nicholas Trumpbour purchased the Evert Sax 
farm in Katsbaan March 3, 1735 ; Coenraedt 
Reghtmyer the Winne farm in Katsbaan Feb. 
24, 1738, and Hermanns Reghtmyer the pres- 
ent Rightmyer farm in Katsbaan in the same 

One of the earliest deeds given by the trus- 
tees of Kingston Commons was of a small place 
on the Old Kings Road to Johannes Minqua 


(or John the Minqua, or Mohegan), which sug- 
gests that he may have been a full, or at least 
a half-blood Mohegan, or Delaware Indian. 
The deed is dated March i, 1715. 

There are no grants of land preceding the 
date of the Palatines (1710), except the Brink 
patent at Mt. Marion ; the Paulison, the Trap- 
hagen and the Winne grants. Of these the 
Traphagen and the Paulison grants were sold ; 
the Winne grant was made in 1692 and that of 
Brink, which was the earliest of all and made 
Feb. 6, 1688. This is the oldest grant in the 
town except the Meals and Hayes patents 
which precede it by about eight months. It is 
stated in a former chapter that Cornelius Lam- 
bertsen Brink immediately built upon his land 
the old stone house which still stands upon the 
hill just north of the covered bridge over the 
Plattekill at the town of Ulster line, and much 
of the tract is still in the possession of Charles 
Brink, a descendant. 

As a summary of this investigation it appears 
to the writer that the first actual settler of the 
town of Saugerties, aside from the undeter- 
mined *' old sawyer," was his great-great-great- 
great grandfather, Cornelius Lambertsen Brink, 
who came into this town about February 6, 

Thus the year 1700 saw but two settlers 
within the limits of the town, Cornelius Lam- 




bertsen Brink and Petrus Winne, unless the 
sawyer was still living here. Who was he? 
Jonathan W. Hasbrouck, who spent many 
years gathering materials for a history of Ulster 
county, which he never completed, speaks of 
a Jacob Pietersen who lived at Saugerties about 
1660, but does not give authority. He may 
have been, if he ever existed, the sawyer. The 
Seventeenth Century closed and a decade of 
the Eighteenth passed without another con- 
veyance of land within the bounds of the town 
of Saugerties. It is probable that some trapper 
may have made a temporary home in the wild- 
erness which he shifted as game appeared more 
plenty elsewhere. The trustees disposed of 
the land on such easy terms that it was not 
difficult to acquire homes and farms. Still, 
before 1 710, but few were applied for. 

In connection with the sawyer another ques- 
tion arises: " For whom did the sawyer saw?" 
A sawmill is not constructed to have its product 
used, or consumed, solely by its owner living 
under primitive conditions in an unsettled 
wilderness. The Indian chief, Kaelcop, speaks 
of him, as before stated, as being here in 1677, 
while Capt. Cregier mentions Sager's creek in 
1663, fourteen years previously, and twenty- 
four years before the Meals and Hayes patents 
and fifty years before John Persen settled in 
this village and built the grist mill on the 


Esopus. There were no roads at that early 
date as the Old Kings Road, the earliest in the 
town, \vas the " ffootpath to Albany" as late 
as 1670 and not laid out as a road until 1703. 
It has been said that he sawed for Livingston, 
the first proprietor of Livingston Manor. But 
this Livingston was not born until 1654 and 
received his grant in 1686 which was by royal 
charter erected into a manor in 171 5. And 
any one who knows the conditions of the Hud- 
son at the mouth of the Saw creek would 
hardly claim that the product of a saw mill 
could be readily shipped in anything but a 
flat-bottomed scow. The sawyer is mysterious 
and his customers seem mythical, but his exist- 
ence seems a sufficientlv attested fact. 



As the year of our Lord 1710 was drawing' 
to its close there seems to have been but two 
families settled within this town, both of whom 
were living on the southern border on the Eso- 
pus creek and the Plattekill. Since Petrus 
Winne had obtained his grant in 1692 no one 
had sought and secured a home within the 
limits of this town. During those twenty years 
its solitudes remained unbroken. Kingston on 
the south slowly added to its population, and 
Katskill (Leeds) on the north had had an un- 
troubled existence and quiet growth since 1644. 
But it was still the smallest of hamlets. Be- 
tween the two settlements lay the primitive 
wilderness and at the time of which we speak 
almost untrodden by the red sons of the forest. 
Their titles had been extinguished for a third 
of a century, yet their successors seemed in no 
hurry for its possession. In truth the whites 
who could settle were very few. Emigration^ 
which had but just begun to any extent at the 
close of Dutch supremacy, had not yet awak- 
ened under their British successors. In Octo- 


ber, 17 10, it was to come in as a flood, and the 
present northeast corner of both the town of 
Saugerties and the county of Ulster was to be 
the scene. At that date, and for fifty years 
longer, this spot was part of the county of 
Albany (Greene) county. But as it was added 
to Ulster in 1767, and is still in this county its 
history will be treated as the history of the 
town of Saugerties. For in October, 1710, the 
-colony of Palatines came to East Camp and 
West Camp. It was the largest emigration at 
any one time in colonial days, and it brought 
into Ulster county a colony of Germans to 
become pioneers and founders with the Dutch 
in Kingston, and the French in New Paltz. 

Who were the Palatines? Whence came 
they, and why? They came from their homes 
on the sunny, castled Rhine along which his- 
tory has been made since civilization began. 
There has always been a '* Wacht am Rhein." 
It has always been the battlefield of Europe. 
Into the history of the Palatinate this history 
cannot go. It can only briefly state the causes 
of the emigration. 

There are two Palatinates in Europe, the 
Upper and the Lower. With the Upper, or 
Bavarian, this history has no concern. It has 
to do with the Palatinate of the Rhine, the 
Lower Palatinate. It might be somewhat in- 
definitely said to be Alsace and Lorraine of 


what was France to 1871, and Wurtemburg 
and Baden in Germany. Its capital was Hei- 
delberg. Its principal cities were Mayence, 
Mannheim, Spires and Worms among many 
other historic ones. 

The people were mostly Protestant, and 
about equally divided between the Lutheran 
and the Reformed faiths. In 1685, the year 
the Meals and Hayes grant was made, which 
was the first step towards the settlement of 
this town, Louis XIV. revoked the Edict of 
Nantes, which had given safety to the Hugue- 
nots of France, and eighty years of prosperity 
to that kingdom. At once the flight of the 
best of Frenchmen began. Tens of thousands 
fled to the Pfals, as they termed the Palatinate, 
which name survives in our New Paltz. And 
the anger of Louis was kindled against the 
Palatinate where already his covetous eyes had 
been resting. From that time these beautiful 
Rhine provinces were almost unceasingly har- 
ried by the hosts of France. Lust and rapine 
stalked rampant through the land. The story 
of the wars of the Grand Alliance, of the 
Spanish Succession, or of any of those which 
during the next twenty years " made the Pal- 
atinate a cinder," would be of interest but can 
not be told here. Every great city on the 
Rhine above Cologne was taken and sacked. 
The Elector Palatine, from the walls of Mann. 


heim, one day counted no less than twenty- 
three towns and villages in flames. The brutal 
soldiers of Louis even broke into the imperial 
tombs in Spires and scattered the dust and 
bones of the emperors. Many are the ruins 
to-day along the castled Rhine which tell of 
the atrocity of the army of the Grande Mon- 

More than all the people suffered. Frozen 

corpses lay over the fields, which in life they 

had plowed and reaped. The conflagration of 

Chicago did not sweep more insatiably than 

did the besom of French destruction over this 

land of the Rhine. Thousands of families 

were homeless, and in direst straits wandered 

through Germany, Holland and England. 

Many permanently settled in those countries, 

but the years 1708 and 1709 found 13,000 in 

England still unprovided for. Queen Anne 

was then on the throne and was first cousin to 

their Prince. The Palatines never wearied of 

singing her praises. One day a band of these 

refugees led by one of their pastors, Rev. 

Joshua Kocherthal, marched through the 

streets of London. Their shovel hats, quaint 

garments and wooden shoes were objects of 

great curiosity to every observer. Their leader, 

pastor Kocherthal, was a tall, grave man of 

mature years. The queen sent for him and he 

presented a petition for her favor as he, with a 


company of forty-one souls, who had taken the 
oath of allegiance to her, were about to depart 
for America. She questioned him minutely, 
and he described himself and his people. She 
was impressed by his sincerity, ability and force 
of character and granted his request. He 
brought his little colony here and settled them 
on the Hudson where is now the city of New- 

As soon as he saw the colony firmly planted 
he sailed for England. These few colonists 
could be cared for. There were thousands 
more in England who needed him. He had 
another interview with the queen whose sym- 
pathies were aroused, as were those of the 
court and people. Collections had been taken 
in the churches for their support. This history 
will not tell the long story. Nor speak of the 
serious problem before the government. At 
last some wiseacre conceived the idea that Eng- 
land, which was entirely dependent upon other 
nations for naval stores, might produce them 
herself from the pines upon the Hudson and 
it was decided upon. Six thousand acres of 
land were purchased from Robert Livingston 
on the east side of the river and the FuUerton 
tract of eight hundred acres on the west side, 
and towards the end of January, i/io, ten 
ships, upon which about 3,000 souls embarked, 
set sail for the Hudson river. After weary 


years of death and destruction, after wander- 
ings over Europe the largest exodus that ever 
took ship to seek a new home sailed away. To 
what? Before them a vast and stormy wintry 
sea. Beyond it a vague wilderness and to most 
of them twenty years more of wandering be- 
fore final homes were found in Pennsylvania. 
As the last of the emigrants embarked, a boat 
was overturned and its occupants were drowned. 
Then a great storm arose, separated the ships, 
and for five months these poor exiles were 
tossed about in their packed vessels during the 
most inclement of winters with scant provisions 
and with a mortal sickness on board, beating 
against adverse winds in search of a home. 
Before June 13, 17 10, when they reached New 
York, 470 had died. Their voyage was one of 
the most terrible in history. And they little 
knew what was worse than all. A semi-serf- 
dom awaited them. These people are usually 
spoken of as '' poor Palatines." And they were. 
They possessed absolutely nothing materially. 
Lust, rapine, murder, outrage and war for 
twenty years had taken care for that. Once 
they had not been so. Their land had been 
the garden of Europe. Who that has sung 
" Bingen on the Rhine" of the Palatines needs 
such information? And they had more. No 
one who has ever seen the documents signed 
by these Palatines needs be told that they 


came from lands of school houses. They were 
the signatures of hands that were used to pens. 
They came to West Camp Oct. 4, 17 10. Bark 
and log huts were built for winter quarters. 
Here they shivered and suffered. But they 
built a church that very winter. And in Jan- 
uary, three months after their landing, they 
had a school house. And it was made of 
sawed boards. Think what this means ! Think 
what these exiles had passed through ! Think 
where they were ! They could keep their 
weary bodies alive somehow. But mind and 
soul must have the best obtainable in this 
howling wilderness. The world has long ad- 
mired the high ideals the Pilgrims at Plymouth 
rock had set before them. But the relative 
needs of body, mind and soul were nevermore 
clearly seen, nor more quickly provided for 
than by these exiles from their home along the 
sunny Rhine who, in the direst straits of pov- 
erty, in semi-serfdom, in mid-winter, while 
shivering frames lacked nutritious food, first of 
all built themselves a school and a church. 



On June 13, 1710, the first of the ten vessels 
which had sailed from England dropped her 
anchor in New York harbor. The new governor 
of the colony, Col. Robert Hunter, came with 
her, and on June 16, reports that ** three of the 
Palatine ships are wanting, and those that have 
arrived are in a deplorable condition." And 
they were. Many cases of contagious diseases 
were among the colonists. So it was decided 
to disembark them upon Nutten (now Gov- 
ernors) Island where huts were built for them. 
Not until the end of July did all the ships 
report, and even then one had never come 
farther than the eastern end of Long Island 
where she went ashore. Her passengers were 
saved, but the goods were much damaged. 
Since they sailed from England in the latter 
part of January, 1710, four hundred and sev- 
enty of their number had died at sea and 
within eighteen months that number had in- 
creased until one-fourth of the 3,000 who had 
embarked had perished. 

The death of so many of these emigrants 


left more than three hundred widows, single 
women and children upon Gov. Hunter's hands. 
The London Board of Trade in their wisdom 
had decided to send the Palatines to the Hud- 
son river to make naval stores from the pines, 
and had caused them, on Dec. 21, 1709, to sign 
a covenant before they sailed by which they 
agreed to " repay to Her Majesty the full sum, 
or sums of money in which we are indebted to 
Her Majesty," by " the production or manu- 
facture of all manner of naval stores." They 
farther promised not to leave the lands allotted 
to them on any manner of pretense. For this 
purpose they had been transported and now 
Gov. Hunter set about colonizing them. 

His first step, after placing the people on 
Governors Island, was to find the most promis- 
ing place in which the Palatines could accom- 
plish the desire of the Board of Trade. He 
immediately dispatched the surveyor-general 
to the Mohawk river and to Schoharie to locate 
a site. During his absence he issued an order 
apprenticing the orphan children around in the 
province and they were distributed from Liv- 
ingston's Manor to Long Island. This in 
those days meant a final separation in most 
cases. It was the first act of the authorities 
which embittered the people against the gov- 
ernor. The report of the surveyor-general 
recommended the settlement of the colony 


upon the banks of the Hudson at what became 
East Camp and West Camp. This was the 
second of their grievances. They had met in 
England a deputation of Mohawks from whom 
they had obtained a promise of lands at Scho- 
harie, and they came to this country believing 
they were to be sent there. They began to 
complain that faith was not kept with them. 
In vain did the governor tell them that Scho- 
harie was on the frontier and could not be well 
defended ; that there were no pines there for 
the naval stores ; that were there pines there 
in paying quantities there was no means of 
transporting the product to navigable waters. 
They answered that they had been promised 
lands in Schoharie, and it was a violation of 
agreement not to be sent there. 

The governor was inexorable and about 
Oct. 1st he bought the land on the east and 
west sides of the Hudson. He made a con- 
tract with Robert Livingston to feed them, and 
on the sixth of October he began their sup- 
port. On November 14, 1710, Gov. Hunter 
writes : '* I have just returned from settling the 
Palatines on Hudson's river. Each family hath 
a sufificient lot of good arable land, and ships 
of fifteen foot draught of water can sail as far 
as their Plantations. They have already built 
themselves comfortable huts and are now em- 
ployed in clearing the ground. In the Spring 


I shall set them to work in preparing the 

The colony was composed of seven villages, 
the four in East Camp being Hunterstown, 
Queenstown, Annsbury and Haysbury, and the 
three in West Camp were named Elizabeth- 
town, Georgetown and Newtown. As stated 
in the last chapter no sooner had huts to shelter 
them been constructed than the colony began 
to erect a church in which the two pastors, 
Rev. Joshua Kocherthal, the Lutheran, and 
Rev. John Frederick Hager, the Reformed, 
officiated. And here for twenty years they 
lived in religious harmony until those of the 
Reformed faith built the church at Katsbaan 
on the west side, and that of Germantown on 
the east side of the river and left the church 
at West Camp to the use of the Lutherans of 
of the colony. With the church arose the 
school. Three months had but just passed 
when a school house " of sawed boards" is 
reported, and these poverty-stricken colonists, 
who protested that their children had been 
taken from them and apprenticed to strangers, 
had gathered the rest for instruction under a 
teacher who is said to have been a man by the 
name of Johannes Mattice Jung (Young). 

In their huts of logs, brush and bark the Pal- 
atines passed the winter of 1710-11 shivering 
and suffering. Tradition, which fixes their 


coming on Dec. 24, says that the winter was 
mild and open and the river did not freeze 
over. But tradition, as it so often is, is griev- 
ously at fault. According to the complaints 
they made to the government the winter was 
severe. They suffered greatly from the bitter 
cold in their huts and tents in the wilderness, 
and the insufficient clothing furnished. Further 
than this they charged Livingston with provid- 
ing food poor in quality, and inadequate in 
quantity. What ground for these charges there 
was cannot be ascertained. Nor how far their 
natural disappointment was a factor. It must 
be remembered that they had been full of 
enthusiasm. The queen and the government 
had been generous to them in England. 

But they were now under men who were 
attempting to make an enterprise financially 
successful. The English government had in- 
vested 8,000 pounds sterling in the scheme. 
But every future dollar came from the pocket 
of Gov. Hunter until he had sunk about 
$130,000, and when it failed it was never 
refunded him. The situation of the Palatines 
was almost destructive of the last trace of 
enthusiasm not only, but of hope. Unwit- 
tingly it may be, but no less surely, they had 
bound themselves by a covenant to reimburse 
the cost of their transportion by a serfdom 
which might last many years ; it was the dead 


of winter in an inhospitable climate, in a howl- 
ing wilderness, in sheds of bark and logs, and 
with many relatives bound out among strangers 
and from whom they might never learn tidings. 
This happened in some cases at least. No 
wonder there was dissatisfaction and com- 
plaint. And all this was aggravated by the 
attitude of the officials placed over them, who 
carried themselves as masters among slaves. 

As the snows disappeared the people began 
to work preparing the pines for a flow of tur- 
pentine. Jean Cast, a Frenchman, who had 
been left by the governor as his personal rep- 
resentative at the Camp, writes under date of 
March 14, 171 1, ''The people are willing to 
take their share of the salt beef which they 
hitherto were unwilling to accept. While thus 
occupied a great many of the settlers came 
from all the villages to receive the tools sent 
them from New York ; they all without excep- 
tion evinced a modesty, civility and respect 
which surprised, as much as it delighted me. 
They have all exhibited equal readiness to clear 
and prepare their gardens and have invited me 
to spend a week with them." 

But dissatisfaction increased. It soon be- 
came apparent that the project would never 
succeed. The trees were mostly white pine, 
and although there were many pitch pines they 
were but small. The children were set at work 


gathering pine knots, of which the forest was 
full and from them about sixty barrels of tar 
were made. This seems to have been the sole 
result of the undertaking. By May, i/ii, the 
murmurs of the people were so persistent that 
the governor came up to the Camp and found 
a mutiny brooding. They demanded to be 
sent to Schoharie and claimed to have been 
cheated in the contract they signed. He paci- 
fied them and returned to New York, but was 
overtaken before he reached the city with tid- 
ings that the mutiny had broken out again. 
He was compelled to put it down with a force 
of soldiers. The Palatines returned to their 
villages and to their tasks. All through the 
following summer they labored on, resignedly 
and steadily. They worked at the trees pre- 
paring 15,000 a day until over 100,000 had been 
made ready. But by the winter of 171 1 -12 
their patience was exhausted. Fresh troubles 
arose. It was upon the same grievances. Still 
they remained quiet until the spring when the 
governor ordered from Albany an additional 
force of a lieutenant and thirty men. From 
this time the colonists appear to have been 
under a kind of compulsory servitude, a slav- 
ery. No wonder they were in a state of 
chronic revolt. They tell the story of the pre- 
ceding winter in a "Statement of Grievances" 
sent to the king. The winter was " very severe 


and no provision to be had and the people bare 
of clothes, which occasioned a terrible conster- 
nation among theni and particularly from the 
women and children the most pitiful and dolor- 
ous cries and lamentations that have perhaps 
ever been heard from any persons under the 
most wretched and miserable circumstances, so 
that they were at last, much against their wills, 
put under the hard and greeting necessity of 
seeking relief from the Indians." 

In April, 1712, some of them upon the east 
side of the river deserted and crossing sought a 
refuge among their brethren of West Camp 
and many passed over to the Dutch across the 
Sawyer's creek in Ulster county. But the 
magistrates of Kingston, responding to the de- 
mands of the authorities of the Manor, sent 
them back. They then determined to go to 
Schoharie and some of them started, but were 
compelled to return by force. Finally on Sep- 
tember 13, 1712, the governor decided that the 
scheme was a failure and gave permission to 
the Palatines to shift for themselves. 



The release of the Palatines from the con- 
tract to labor in making naval stores in payment 
of the cost of their transportation to America 
was accompanied by the notice that the " con- 
tract is still binding and they must return on 
call." But the failure was so complete that no 
call was ever made and the colonists became 
freemen. The Palatines on the Manor took 
steps at once to secure that freedom. About 
one-third of those on the east side of the river 
remained there. The rest migrated to Scho- 
harie. With their troubles in acquiring title 
to the lands there and their dispersion to the 
Mohawk and Pennsylvania we have nothing to 
do here. Nor with the small band that founded 
Rhinebeck and named it after their loved river 
in the homeland. We must follow the Pala- 
tines of our town. 

It is difificult to determine the relative num- 
bers of the colonists on either side of the river. 
The colony had more than seven times the 
acreage on the east side that it had on the 
west side of the Hudson. Cobb's "Story of 


the Palatines" takes it for granted that there 
was almost no tar-making on the west side. 
But to one familiar with the soil on either side 
of the river it would seem that the west bank 
would be a natural home of the pine. The 
soil fulfils the pine land conditions better. 
Besides there is direct evidence of tar-making 
at West Camp. At a meeting of the Palatine 
commissioners on July 4, 171 1, it was resolved 
that " Every two Palatine Coopers, whereof 
there are 12 on this (east) side and 4 on the 
other (west) side of Hudson's river have four 
Palatines for their assistants, to cut down, saw, 
and split the timber and assist in making the 
barrel staves fit for the containing Tarr for 
Transportation, and that the respective List 
masters, or heads of Every Village on this side 
Doe detach 24 men, and 12 men on the other 
(west) side every munday in their turn -^^ * * 
and there work till Saturday night." The list 
masters (foremen) for the west side of the river 
to supervise the tar-making were for Elizabeth- 
town, John Christopher Gerlach ; for George- 
town, Jacob Manck ; for Newtown, Philip Peter 
Grauberger. But whatever the fact, one thing 
is beyond dispute. The colonists at West 
Camp remained where they were. They did 
not go to Schoharie. The names of those pos- 
itively known to have been here from the first 
show that these families are in our town to this 


day in their descendants. There is one thing 
remarkable. Although the purchased lands 
upon the east shore were so much more than 
upon the west it seems that the headquarters 
was on this side. Here was built the church. 
Here pastor Kocherthal lived, died and was 
buried. Here the colonists were content to 

It is an interesting question what was the 
number of Palatines who came to the Camp, 
and how many remained. But it is somewhat 
difficult to answer. There is a discrepancy in 
the different accounts of the number of those 
who sailed from England in January, 1710. 
The journal of Conrad Weiser gives 4,000. 
Other accounts state the number at above 
3,000. This number is probably nearer the 
truth. On February 8, 171 1, the Lords of 
Trade report to Queen Anne that the number 
of Palatines settled at the Camp is 2,227. Of 
these the names of 82 heads of families, and 
a total of 257 persons is given as having win- 
tered at West Camp. On March 25, 171 1, the 
subsistence of 1,437 persons is reported. A 
report made May i, 171 1, says that 1,761 per- 
sons were here, of whom 583 are at West 
Camp. The number given on June 24, 171 1, is 
1,874, of whom 639 are at West Camp. Octo- 
ber 24, 171 1, the number at the Camp is only 
1,422. The last report of all is made a number 


of years after this, and after the exodus to 
Schoharie, when 68o persons are reported at 
Schoharie, 232 at West Camp and those at 
East Camp are 359, with 140 at Rhinebeck. 
At this time 40 are said to be in Kingston, or 
probably, Kingston Commons, meaning else- 
where in this town than in the vicinity of West 
Camp. It is expressly said that no widows or 
orphans are included in this statement. 

In the covenant made between the Board of 
Trade and the Palatines while in London, a 
promise was made of an allotment to each per- 
son of forty acres of land free of taxes, or rents 
for seven years from the date of the grant, and 
to be made at the conclusion of their service. 
This was never made them. And when they 
were released and bidden to seek for them- 
selves, most of those at West Camp passed 
over from the Fullerton patent to the Kingston 
Commons seeking homes. In another chapter 
we will see the effect of this upon the church 
at West Camp for a generation and a half. 

Nevertheless some families remained at West 
Camp and acquired good titles to homes and 
farms. On Oct. 10, 1715, Gov. Hunter reported 
that the Palatines who were supporting them- 
selves not only did so very comfortably, but 
the more industrious really began to make 
money. On July 7, 1717, he reports that all 
earn a living and some are grown rich. 


There is one quaint estimate of what the 
colony would need made in November, 1710, 
a month after the settlement, which, after giv- 
ing the number of sets of harness, blacksmith's, 
carpenter's and other tools and implements, 
says that "some things are wanted forth with, 
as a church for divine service in each of the 
settlements ; a warehouse in ye same and house 
for ye ofificers ; 3 pair of millstones; 250 cows 
and 600 sowes." Also wanted " 100 pounds 
in New York money to pay a Phisitian general, 
40 pounds to pay 2 surgeons; 20 pounds to 
pay 2 schoolmasters. Four nurses are wanted 
for ye hospital at 216 pence a week. The sub- 
sistence of the above will be paid." 

A full list of the Palatines who came to New 
York with Gov. Hunter, in June, 1710, was 
never made, nor of those who came to the 
Camp. And the constantly changing numbers 
increases the difficulty of mentioning them. 
But the following names of those who settled 
on the west side of the river are taken from the 
records, mentioning only those whose descend- 
ants are found in this town. Peter Maurer, 
(Mower), wife and an adult woman ; Frederick 
Mirckle (Markle), wife, 2 lads and 3 girls ; Val- 
entine Wolleben (Wolven) and wife ; Philip 
Wolleben ; John Becker and son ; Albert Ded- 
crick Marterstock and wife ; John Eberhard ; 
Peter Wolleben, wife and three children; An- 


thony Kremer (Cramer) ; Stephen Frolich 
(Freligh), wife and 3 children ; Gartrud Eiker- 
tin (Eckert) and 2 children ; Peter Becker and 
wife ; Valentine Ffaulkinberg, wife and one 
child; Wilhelm Muller (Miller) ; Elizabeth Jung 
(Young) and 3 children; Elizabeth Bayherin 
(Bear) and one child ; John Michael Emerick 
and wife ; Peter Diebel (Dibble), wife and 
child ; Catherine Schultzin ; Christian Myer 
and wife ; Peter Overbach and wife ; Hyerony- 
mous Schib (Shoub) and wife. These spent 
the first winter at West Camp. Among those 
who came up from New York in the spring of 
171 1, and during the summer are Palatines by 
the names of Young, Plank, Bronck, Dederick, 
Schutt, Newkirk, Eligh, Wanamaker, Valk, Sax, 
Snyder, Romer, Felton, Hoffman, Schumaker, 
Hauver, Hagedorn, Schaffer, Keyser, Sagen- 
dorf, Riffenberg, Linck, Hoff, Winter, Dill, 
Sharpe and Kieffer. And from those who 
came in 1708 to Newburgh there came the 
following: Daniel Fiero, Andreas Valck and 
Isaac Turck and their families. 

It is not within the scope of this history to 
trace these families along the lines descending 
from this Palatine stock. Descendants of most 
are residents of this town to-day. The earliest 
homes of many of them will be located in 
subsequent chapters. 

So Saugerties received its strongest element 


and the most numerous. At this time there 
was but a handful of settlers within our borders 
and these were Dutch. Some of the earliest 
deeds granted were to Palatines. A few 
Huguenot families were early resident. And 
one or two English. But this influx of at least 
two hundred and fifty people was enough to 
stamp a character upon the community for 
generations. They were an intelligent people. 
Their signatures show that they were used to 
handling a pen. The journal of Weiser is well 
written. Their first act, which built a school 
house immediately, proves it. And the next 
chapter but one will show their leader, Koch- 
erthal, to have been a man of fine education. 
They were God-fearing, for their earliest record 
is that they built a church forthwith, as well as 
a school house. They were liberty loving. 
Their semi-serfdom was irksome, and only 
acquiesced in because they felt indebted to the 
queen and her government for assistance. And 
they were patriotic. Their record of service for 
their adopted country is noble. The first win- 
ter they sent a company of volunteers for 
service against the French in Canada. And 
during the Revolutionary war no patriots were 
more self-sacrificing than they. Among the 
apprenticed orphan children, previously spoken 
of, was one named John Peter Zenger, who, in 
.after years, established a paper in New York 


and fearlessly criticised the arbitrary colonial 
government. He was arrested and imprisoned. 
His trial and triumphant acquittal established 
the freedom of the press in America, and would 
be an interesting story, but it does not particu- 
arly relate to the history of our town. 



No sooner had the Palatines been landed on 
the shores of the Hudson at the Camp than 
they took steps to provide a place for the 
public worship of God. The authorities had 
been advised that two such buildings be erected, 
one on either side of the river. But without 
waiting for the action of the civil authorities 
the people themselves provided a place at 
West Camp. And they did this the first 
winter they were there. It has been often 
said that pastor Kocherthal was not with the 
colony at the Camp during the winter of 
1710-11. But the baptismal register shows 
baptisms during these months. If this be 
answered that he was with the colony at New- 
burgh and the baptisms were there it is sub- 
mitted that Jean Cast, writing from West 
Camp, March 27, 171 1, reports a conversation 
with Kocherthal regarding the repugnance of 
his flock to the making of tar and other naval 
stores which unmistakably establishes the fact 
of his presence there. 

The church at West Camp was erected 


almost upon the site of the present one. As 
the colony reached West Camp on or about 
Oct. 4, 1710, it is probable that divine services 
were immediately held and have continued 
from that date, with an exception to be men- 
tioned. The building was erected for the wor- 
ship of the colony, which was composed of 
Lutherans and those of the Reformed faith. 
There were two pastors, the Rev. Joshua Koch- 
erthal, Lutheran, and the Rev. John Frederick 
Hager, Reformed. Hager resided at East 
Camp, and we find them jointly reporting the 
number of families under their charge in 1718. 
In October, 1715, Hager petitioned Gov. 
Hunter for leave and help to build a church 
at East Camp, promising that services should 
be performed after the liturgy of the Church 
of England. Nothing resulted from the peti- 

Tradition has always held that a bell was 
presented to the church by Queen Anne which 
has since disappeared. But it seems that tra- 
dition must be m error. The church records 
kept by Kocherthal do indeed mention the bell 
given by Her Majesty. But Kocherthal had 
brought over the Quassaick (Newburgh) colony 
in 1708, two years before he brought the Camp 
colony. With the first colony he brought the 
bell as his records, which cover both colonies, 
show. They also show that the bell was loaned 


to the Lutheran church in New York, where it 
remained for more than twenty years, when it 
was brought to Newburgh in 1733. Kocherthal 
died in 1719, when about to journey once more 
to England with a Palatine commission to 
secure the promises covenanted to the colonists. 
The church was served by Hager for a while 
and then by the Rev. John Jacob Ehle, Re- 
formed, and the Rev. Daniel Falckner and the 
Rev. W, C. Berckenmayer, Lutherans, the last a 
son-in-law of Kocherthal. These services were 
continued occasionally until 1729. In 1727, 
the present Reformed Church was organized at 
Germantown, and in 1730, the Rev. George 
Wilhelmus Mancius came from Holland to the 
Camp, and finding most of the colony settled 
upon lands of the Kingston Commons and 
worshipping on the Kats Baan became their 
pastor. In 1732, upon his incitement, they 
erected the old stone church there. From this 
time the records cease at West Camp until 
after the death of Mancius in 1762. In 1765, 
they began again, and in 1775, the Rev. Philip 
Groz was settled as pastor in West Camp. 
The old church was replaced by a new one 
about 1791-2, and was afterwards rebuilt. In 
1871, it was torn down after the erection on a 
site but a few feet distant of the present beau- 
tiful structure. 

What was the reason for this long lapse in 


the records of the church ? A suggestion seems 
to be in what has been told in this connection. 
The settlement at West Camp was upon the 
patent of Thomas FuUerton. This was repur- 
chased by the British government through Gov. 
Hunter, who advanced $130,000 towards the 
naval stores scheme. When the project failed 
the sfovernment would not reimburse Hunter. 
His money was invested but the sole asset was 
the property here at the Camp including the 
Fullerton tract. So there was a cloud on the 
title to the lands. The Palatines passed over 
the Sawyer's creek to the Kingston Commons 
and took up land there. Here there was plenty 
which could be purchased for not more than 
$2.50 per acre, or leased for ten years at a rental 
of two fat hens per annum and after that time 
for not more than a peck of wheat per acre 
with the privilege of purchase at any time. 
And most of the Palatines availed themselves 
of the privilege. For many years most of the 
families resided there and after the Katsbaan 
church was built worshipped there. For Man- 
cius preached in German at Katsbaan, at least 
at first, and afterwards both in German and 
Dutch. At his death in 1762 his successors 
preached in Dutch only. By this time the 
land question was settled and West Camp had 
received its proportionate share of settlers. 
Then a pastor came and the records on the 


church book are continued. Thus this church 
at West Camp is the oldest within the present 
town of Saugerties. From 1765 the services 
have been regularly held and are to this day. 
The congregation is large and widely extended. 
A curious difference has always been manifest 
between the Palatines holding the Reformed 
faith in this town and those of the Lutheran. 
The Reformed intermingled with the Dutch 
and Huguenot element not only, but built no 
less than five Reformed churches in different 
parts of the town, while the Lutheran element 
intermingled comparatively little, and all re- 
mained loyal members of the original church 
at West Camp wherever they resided. 



It remains to speak of the remarkable man 
who led the exodus from the Palatinate into 
England and then brought two colonies across 
the Atlantic to the valley of the Hudson. He 
was not only the pastor of the flock, but their 
leader and guide in temporal affairs, their coun- 
sellor and friend. He was just in the prime of 
life, a tall and grave man, scholarly and retiring 
and of a winsome personality. He impressed 
all with whom he came in contact, whether the 
Lords of Trade, or the people of England ; 
whether Queen Anne, or his suffering 
triots. Her Majesty set aside customs in his 
favor and provided for his support as a clergy- 
man in a communion not of the Church of 
England. His entries in the records of his 
church show a poetic soul whom the dark 
waters of affliction could not overwhelm ; a 
Christian scholar whose interpretation of his 
varied experiences accorded with a faith which 
surmounted every obstacle and found every 
event another proof of the favor of his Master 
and Friend. 


As we have been telling the story of the 
colony we have given glimpses of his spirit. 
We will add some matters of his personal 
record. The Rev. Joshua Kocherthal was 
born in the year 1669, the year of the birth 
of his beloved Sibylla Charlotte, as he calls his 
wife. She accompanied him upon his first 
voyage which brought the Newburgh colonists, 
and with them their three children. Two 
others were born in this country. On their 
voyage out they came with the fleet bringing 
Lord Lovelace, the new governor of New York 
and New Jersey. The weather was tempestu- 
ous and they were eleven weeks at sea, reach- 
ing New York on New Years Day, 1709, having 
suffered severely. He left his wife and children 
in New York on his return to England for the 
larger emigration and while he was away his 
fourth child was born. The story of the six 
months voyage to New York with the 3,000 
Palatines in 1710, we have already told, of 
their hardships, sufferings from fever and 
storm, their serfdom and final dispersion. In 
all this their pastor was their constant guide, 
counsellor and helper. September, 17 12, saw 
the release of the people from their thankless 
and grinding task at the pines. It also wit- 
nessed the breaking up of the pastor's flock. 
A little over one year more and his beloved 
Sibylla Charlotte was called away on Decem- 



ber i6, 1713, and the pastor was left alone 
with his five children, the oldest of whom, 
Benigna Sibylla, was a girl of fifteen years. 
Faithfully, for six years longer he lived and 
served in West Camp and shepherding the 
people of his widely scattered charge. Then 
the Palatines at Schoharie, along the Mohawk 
and here on the Hudson, disappointed in not 
receiving their promised lands, determined to 
send a committee to London to secure from 
the government the lands they claimed at 
Schoharie and asked their pastor to go. He 
consented, but while preparing, suddenly ex- 
pired. With reverent hands his affectionate 
people laid his weary frame to rest in the green 
field southeast of the church at West Camp 
and here in 1742, his daughters laid over his 
grave a large slab of brown stone bearing a 
quaint German inscription which was written 
by some one not too familiar with that lan- 
guage, and which, after correcting some mani- 
fest errors is as follows : 

'* Wisse Wandersmann unter diesem Stein 
ruht nebst seiner Sibylla Charlotte ein rechter 
Wandersmann der Hoch-Deutschen in Nord 
Amerika, ihr, Josua, und derselben an der Ost 
und West Seite des Hudson's river rein Luth- 
erischen Prediger. Seine erste Ankunft war mit 
Lord Lovelace 1707-8, den iten Januar. Seine 
zweite mit Col. Hunter, 1710, den 14, Juny. 


Seine Englandische Rueckreise unterbrach 
seine Seelen Himmelische Reise an St. Jo- 
hanestage, 1719. Begehrst du mehr zu wissen 
so untersuche in Melancthon's Vaterland wer 
war der Kocherthal, wer Harschias, wer Win- 

B. Berkenmayer, S. Huertin, L. Brevort. 

The three names at the bottom are those of 
his three daughters Benigna, Susanna and 
Louisa, and Berckenmayer, Huertin and Bre- 
vort were the names of their respective hus- 
bands. Who Harschias and Winchenbach 
were the writer has never learned. The Rev. 
PhiHp Lichtenberg, formerly of this village, 
thus translated the inscription : 

"Know, traveller, under this stone rests, be- 
side his Sibylla Charlotte, a real traveller, of 
the High Dutch in North America their Joshua 
and a pure Lutheran preacher of the same on 
the east and west side of the Hudson river. 
His first arrival was with Lord Lovelace in 
1709, the first of January. His second with 
Col. Hunter, 1710, the fourteenth of June. 
The journey of his soul to Heaven on St. 
John's Day, 17 19, interrupted his return to 
England. Do you wish to know more? Seek 
in Melancthon's Fatherland who was Kocher- 
thal, who Harschias, who Winchenbach?" 


But the character of the Palatine leader and 
his poetic nature are most fully shown in the 
entries in his own handwriting in the records 
he kept of baptisms, marriages and the like in 
his church book. The title page, under date 
of December, 1708, has this inscription: "^ 
vie Josua de Valle Concordics, vulgo Kocherthaly 
ecclesicB Germanice Neo-Eboracen ministro pri- 
mo'' (by me, Joshua, of the Valley of Concord, 
commonly called Kocherthal, first minister of 
the German church in New York). The bap- 
tismal record has this caption ; '''Jesu Auspice^'* 
(Jesus our Leader). The list of church mem- 
bers is headed: "" Jesu ecclesicB sues Auctore et 
Conservatore'' (Jesus, Author and Preserver of 
His Church). Where he recorded gifts to his 
church he placed at the head of the page : 
^' Jesu retribuente,'' (Jesus Repaying). Over the 
record of his marriages he wrote '' Jesu ccelesti 
nostrarum animariim Sponso,'' (Jesus, heavenly 
Bridegroom of our souls). And when he re- 
corded the death of those who passed away he 
wrote "•/esu Vivificantey (Jesus vivifying). 

Here in the green fields of his own Newtown^ 
on the banks of the Hudson, his remains rested 
as in a new valley of concord until 1896 when 
they were disinterred and placed under the 
West Camp church and the stone that had so 
long covered his grave was removed and placed 
in the vestibule of that edifice as a mural tablet. 



From the date of the abandonment of the 
scheme for the production of naval stores by 
the Palatines in September, 17 12, to the begin- 
ning of the Revolutionary war, there is but 
little for a historian of this town to record. 
Less than seven hundred people resided in its 
borders and there were but three centres of 
population, Katsbaan, West Camp and Sau- 
gerties, and these but small clusters of houses. 
Former chapters have shown where scattering 
farmers lived. There were no factories, but 
such as saw mills, grist mills and the like inci- 
dental to the wants of an agricultural people. 
Of these and of other industries which arose 
soon after the Revolution, another chapter will 
speak. It is here proposed to tell the few 
historical incidents of the period between 1715- 


To do that is to begin with the troubles 
between the English and French in 1710-11 in 
America in which the Palatines took part. It 
was an incident in the long struggle for the 
possession of North America which is so fully 


told in the glowing pages of Francis Parkman. 
During the summer of 1710, when the Pala- 
tines were at New York preparing for the 
settlement at the Camp, an expedition against 
the French in Canada was decided on. During 
the first winter of the Palatines at the Camp 
(1710-11) they were called upon to furnish 
volunteers. Such a summons could not fall 
upon more willing ears. The long and brutal 
career of devastation and death during which 
they had suffered from the French in the 
homeland was not forgotten and with alacrity 
they enlisted. Two companies were formed, 
one of fifty-nine men under Capt. John Con- 
rad Weiser and one of fifty-two men under 
Capt. Hartman Winedecker. A force of 1,600 
men from New York, New Jersey and Con- 
necticut was mustered at Albany for the inva- 
sion of Canada, and a fleet of sixteen men-of- 
war and forty transports with troops sailed 
from England for the St. Lawrence. But this 
fleet was wrecked on the rocks in that river 
and the invading force, hearing of the tidings 
as they reached Lake Champlain, returned to 
Albany and disbanded. 

During the decade and a half that succeeded 
the dispersion of the Palatines the town gradu- 
ally acquired population. The Palatines were 
reinforced by Dutchmen coming from King- 
ston until, by 1730, the vicinity of Katsbaan 


had many settlers. About 1727 Johannes 
VanDriessen, a brother of Rev. Petrus Van- 
Driessen, pastor of the Reformed church of 
Albany, through forged certificates, succeeded 
in obtaining from the Congregationalists of 
Connecticut, an ordination to the ministry. 
He came to East Camp, organized the present 
Reformed church of Germantown and built an 
edifice. Complaint was made to the Classis of 
Amsterdam, in Holland, and by that body all 
who were concerned therein were censured, 
and Rev. George Wilhelmus Mancius, (who 
had just been ordained), seems to have come 
to America to the Camp to investigate. He 
sailed from Amsterdam July 12, 1730. Arriv- 
ing at East Camp he found himself powerless. 
The people were attached to VanDriessen and 
content in the long-desired church. So he 
passed over the river to West Camp. Examin- 
ing into the state of affairs there and finding 
most of the colony worshipping two miles 
westward on the hill at Katsbaan he became 
their pastor in the autumn of 1730 and in 1732 
the old stone church was built. Soon the 
whole flock was worshipping here. For some 
reason, presumably for the one given else- 
where, which was the difficulty in acquiring 
title to lands east of Sawyer's creek, most of 
the colony had settled on Kingston Commons 
and services at West Camp were interrupted 


until 1765 when they were regularly contin- 
ued. But we can not enter here upon the 
farther history of the Katsbaan church. 

In 1754 Gen. Edward Braddock was com- 
missioned by the British government as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of all their forces in America 
and sent to the colonies. With his disastrous 
expedition this history is not directly con- 
cerned. But the French and Indian war then 
beginning affected this town. The operations 
against France were to be carried on all along 
the line and to Sir William Johnson was 
intrusted the command of an expedition 
against Crown Point of 6,000 men of New 
England and New York. Some of these were 
from Ulster county and a few may have been 
recruits in our town. But in 1757 a grand 
campaign against Canada was projected. One 
expedition was determined upon to proceed by 
the way of Lake Champlain and was placed 
under the command of Gen. Webb. He 
reached Fort Edward with 4,000 men. Col. 
Munroe, another British officer, was at Fort 
William Henry, sixteen miles distant, with 
3,000 men. Montcalm, in command of the 
French and Indian forces, approached with 
9,000 reported troops and Col. Munroe called 
upon his superior. Gen. Webb, for assistance. 
It was not sent. Montcalm came upon Col. 
Munroe and for six days the latter was 


besieged, when finding no reinforcements com- 
ing he was compelled to surrender on the 
promise that he should march out of Fort 
William Henry with the honors of war. But 
the French ruthlessly violated the terms and 
permitted their savage allies to murder and 
torture those who had relied upon their prom- 
ise and surrendered. Among the troops under 
Webb lying but sixteen miles away and clam- 
oring to be led to the relief of their country- 
men were many of the Ulster county militia 
and of these was a company from Saugerties 
under the command of Capt. Tobias Wyn- 
koop, who resided upon the Old Kings Road 
on the farm now known as the Kemble place. 

These Ulster county troops numbered three 
hundred and were commanded by Col. Thomas 
Allison. They proceeded to Albany by sloops 
and then marched under a torrid August sun 
from Albany to Fort Edward in two days, 
carrying upon their backs their full equipment. 
Many dropped out by the way and the energy of 
the officers occasioned much complaining from 
the men. But officers as well as men marched, 
carrying muskets, fording streams and hasten- 
ing forward unceasingly. And when they 
heard that the army was not to go to the relief 
of Munroe their indignation knew no bounds. 
It is said of the Ulster regiment that the whole 
contingent got under arms in less than an hour 


and waded across the Hudson through water 
reaching their shoulders clamoring to be led 
against their hated foe. For many of them 
were from the valley of the Rondout and had 
long been sufferers from Indian outrage in 
Sullivan county, in Orange and in Wawarsing, 
and they had cheerfully enlisted to make an 
end of the atrocious warfare the French and 
Indians were conducting. This western fron- 
tier of Ulster county was peculiarly harassed 
by Indians during these years, and Sergeant 
Abraham Post, of Saugerties, had led a band 
of Saugerties men as scouts along this frontier 
during the year 1757. 

For the campaign of 1758 Ulster county was 
called upon to furnish 228 men. There is no 
means of ascertaining how many were from 
this town. No Ulster county troops were with 
Abercrombie at his defeat at Ticonderoga as 
they had been sent with the force of Col. Brad- 
street to reduce Fort Frontenac, on Lake 
Ontario. This was captured and the troops 
returned to Albany. The campaign of 1759 
resulted in 4:he capture of Quebec by Wolfe 
and the end of the war. But it is impossible 
to give the names of those who served, or tell 
who were the soldiers from this town. It seems 
probable that the company of Capt. Tobias 
Wynkoop was a part of this force against Fron- 
tenac in 1758 and of that of 1759 which, under 


Amherst, succeeded in driving the French from 
Lake Champlain. But who composed it can 
not be told at this late day. The records have 
disappeared, or none were ever kept. 

From this date until the Revolution no event 
for the historian seems to have occurred. The 
people quietly pursued their business from 
which they were to be aroused to battle for 
their liberties in the great contest with Eng- 
land. Here they nobly bore their part. An 
attempt will be made to show where they re- 
sided within the borders of this town when the 
contest began. In the chapters to follow it is 
proposed to tell the part borne by men of Sau- 
gerties, of whom so many served, and whose 
honored remains rest in so many of the ceme- 
teries of this town. In too many cases their 
dust has returned to kindred clay and no mark 
is on the spot. In others the stone needs an 
Old Mortality to decipher it. The Saugerties 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, composed of the descendants of 
those patriots of this town, have sought out 
many of those graves, and have determined to 
care for them, and upon each Memorial Day 
lay a wreath upon each while others do the 
same to those who fought to preserve what 
they fought to secure. 



Before the story of the War of the Revolu- 
tion is taken up it is proposed to pass over the 
earlier settled portions of the town and con- 
sider such of the families then resident as 
were possessors of original patents, grants, or 
deeds, and where they were located before 
that great conflict. In doing this the point 
of view will be the decade 1760-70, looking 
towards our own time (1900). It is proposed 
to invite to a walk about town. The tramp 
will be over so much of the present village of 
Saugerties as lies on the north side of the 
Esopus creek. Instead of the spreading town 
which would greet us in 1900, within its 
bounds there are but twelve^^wellings, all 
told, and a school house. There is no church 
edifice, as the people worship at the " steene 
Kerk op de Kats Baan," although for six 
years from 1780 to 1786 the pastor, Rev. Lam- 
bertus De Ronde resided in the Post house on 
the grounds of the present residence of Mrs. 
Dawes. We will set out for our walk from 


the spot from whence the village takes its 
name. This is at the falls in the Saw creek at 
the Mason residence which will be for genera- 
tions known as the Brink homestead. The 
mill of the old sawyer, or little sawyer, as he 
was familiarly called, (klein zaagertje,) stood 
here where the waters tumble down into the 
river out of this wild ravine. 

On March 3, 1740, Barent Burhans, the 
miller, was recently deceased and had pur- 
chased, during his lifetime, a part of the pat- 
ent of George Meals and Richard Hayes to 
lands at Saugerties. This patent is dated 
May, 1687. His four sons Johannes, William, 
Jacob and David, that day released each other 
and the trustees of Kingston Commons gave 
them a deed for their lands. John Brink, Jr., 
will marry a daughter of William Burhans and 
the place thus pass into the Brink family. 
John Brink will then establish a ferry across 
the Hudson to Chancellor Livingston's, which 
ferry will survive in the ferry to Tivoli. His 
son, Capt. Andrew Brink, will run a sloop to 
New York, carrying among other things the 
farm products of Livingston, and when Robert 
Fulton with Livingston will build the Cler- 
mont, will be associated with them, and com- 
mand the boat upon her successful steam 
voyage, August 3, 1807, and that night she 
will lie anchored just opposite where we stand 


to resume her voyage in the morning to 
Albany. When she is fitted up for passengers 
she will be commanded for some time by Capt. 
Brink. John Brink, Jr., will be a soldier of 
the Revolution and enlist three times during 
that war, and serve in succession in different 
regiments. His remains will lie with other 
soldiers of the same conflict in Main street 
cemetery. This place will remain in the Brink 
family until nearly 1900. 

We would say in passing that we are stand- 
ing at the northeast boundary of Ulster county 
on the Hudson as the act dividing the province 
into counties in 1683, bounded Ulster county 
on the Hudson from Sawyer's creek to Murder- 
er's creek, which is between Newburgh and 
Cornwall. In 1767, the legislature will change 
the county line and it will start from the river 
at Wanton Island, near Smith's Landing, in- 
stead of from here. 

Now let us pass to the south along the river. 
We are on the large Meals patent. Here is 
the stone house of Myndert Mynderse, built in 
1743, twenty years before our walk. It is on 
the first land grant in the town given to George 
Meals and Richard Hayes covering 441^ acres 
on both sides of the Esopus creek at its 
mouth. George Meals subsequently conveyed 
his interest to his partner who conveyed the 
same to John Hayes, from whom it passed to 


his son-in-law, John Persen. He in turn be- 
queathed it to his daughter, the wife of the 
Myndert Mynderse spoken of. This place will 
be in 1900, still in possession of the family in 
which it has remained for eight generations. 
John Persen built a grist mill on the falls of 
the Esopus and a scow ferry. Here an iron 
bridge will be built in 1874. Another ferry 
will be maintained at Stony Point until a pon- 
toon bridge replaces it, which Henry Barclay 
will buy. These ferries in turn will be suc- 
ceeded by a wooden bridge in 1839, ^^^ ^^^^ 
by the above mentioned iron bridge. 

We journey on past the old grave yard on 
the Mynderse place with its venerable stones. 
Notice the beautiful prospect over the Hudson. 
None is finer in this vicinity. At the foot of 
the hill on the dock is standing the old Post 
house under one of the largest buttonball trees 
along the river. 

From here we return northward. On this 
corner of Main and Maiden streets is the house 
of Egbert Schoonmaker It will be still in the 
family of a descendant, the son of the late 
Peter P. Schoonmaker, in 1900. A little north 
is that of Samuel Schoonmaker near the second 
Meals' patent. Attention is directed to the 
fact that this land is a natural park. The lands 
of this region were heavily wooded except 
directly north of the village until about the 


vicinity of the ** People's Road " east of the 
Canoe Hill. This park had long been culti- 
vated by the Indians in maize, or Indian corn. 
In Capt. Martin Cregier's "Journal of the Eso- 
pus War," written Sept. 24, 1663, he writes: 
** The party that was sent out in the night 
returned home about two o'clock in the after- 
noon ; they were at Sager's Killetje, on the 
Indian maize plantation, but saw no Indians, 
nor anything to indicate that they had been 
there for a long time, for the maize had not 
been hoed and could not come to its full 
growth, but had been much injured by the wild 
beasts ; neither will any of it reach perfection, 
except one plantation of it, which was good, 
having been hoed by the Indians. It was, 
however, much injured by the wild beasts; 
each of our people brought a load of it home 
an his back and left some more standing which 
we will when convenient bring hither. They 
also say that it is beautiful maize land, suitable 
for a number of bouweries and for the imme- 
diate reception of the plough." 

It is well to notice that it is to John Persen, 
mentioned above, that the old stone church of 
Katsbaan is indebted for the grant upon which 
the church stands, which he obtained for it in 
March, 1731, from the trustees of Kingston 
Commons and he was the first elder in its con- 
sistory. And, returning to Egbert Schoon- 


maker's, we should remark that the church will 
owe its continued life during the interval from 
the death of Domine Mancius in 1762 to the 
settlement of De Ronde as its pastor in 1780, 
a period of eighteen years, to its most active 
elder, Egbert Schoonmaker, whose efforts will 
keep it alive during the time when the Dutch 
Reformed church is rent by an ecclesiastical 
contest, and the country is at war and Kats- 
baan without a pastor. 

From the house of Egbert Schoonmaker on 
the corner we pass westward. Here are two 
houses on opposite sides of the street belong- 
ing to Hiskia DuBois. One will be long 
known as old Kiersted house. Just west of 
these and near where will be the Reformed 
church resides John Post. His brother, 
Abraham, keeps tavern still farther westward. 
It is the village gathering place. It is built ^f 
strong timbers firmly clasped and will remain 
the village tavern for almost a century. On 
its site m 1900 will stand the hardware store 
of James Russell. But the tavern meanwhile 
will pass from the Posts to Frederick Krows in 
1817, who will conduct it until about 1850, 
when the building will be moved back from 
the street to the rear of the hardware store 
and will be a tinshop until 1900. North of 
this tavern of Abraham Post, Jecobus, another 
brother, resides. On this site Dr. Dawes will 



build after many years a residence farther east 
than the house of Jecobus Post, which stands 
close to the street. It is in this house that 
Domine DeRonde resided as said above. 
Northwest of this residence of Jecobus Post is 
the dwelling of Isaac Post. This building will 
be still standing later than i860 under the hill 
west of what will afterward be the terminus of 
Elm street. 

We will return to the tavern of Abraham 
Post. This is yet, in 1763, a part of the town 
of Kingston and will be for fifty years. But 
with the store of Cornelius Persen at Katsbaan 
it is one of the centres of the town and in a 
dozen years it will be the meeting place of 
men to discuss the issues of the Revolution. 
Here will come the messenger from Kingston 
with the patriotic Articles of Association 
which all will sign. Here will be told the 
victories and defeats of the long war. These 
roof-trees will ring with the shouts that pro- 
claim the victories of Saratoga and Yorktown 
and the conquests of John Paul Jones. And 
from here, and from Cornelius Persen's, will 
depart the militia re-enforcements for the cap- 
ture of Burgoyne. To this old tavern will 
come the messenger to tell that Vaughan's 
soldiers have set fire to the Wolven house, 
where in 1900 John G. Myers will live, and 
here in the long years of the following peace 


the story will be often told to younger gen- 

But we will resume our walk. No houses 
now until we reach that one in the distance 
except the school house near where afterwards 
will be the Russell Block until we reach 
Petrus Myer's which will be occupied after 
long years by Sherwood D. Myer, a descen- 
dant. One dwelling more remains. In it is 
living Johannes Myer, and it will remain in 
the possession of his descendants until it is 
purchased by John Michael Genthner. 

The ever beautiful site of the village with 
its grand guardianship of the Hudson and the 
Catskills, where the Esopus sweeps into the 
river, is the same in the middle of the Eigh- 
teenth Century, as at the opening of the 
Twentieth. But the dozen houses of 1763 are 
hundreds now, and the fifty inhabitants then 
are thousands to-day. 



Beginning at the old stone church in Kats- 
baan our next walk will be around that section 
of the town. It is the most populous portion 
and we will find as many residents as there 
will be in 1900. As we assemble at the church 
before us lies one of the grandest visions of 
the majesty of the Catskills. At no point from 
which these mountains are visible are they so 
impressive as from the cemetery hill near at 
hand. Although around us is a thickly settled 
region most of the houses are simple structures 
of frame, or stone, and many are of logs. The 
forests have been cleared hereabout, except 
that there is a large grove of white oaks around 
the church of which a few will remain until 
1900. This white oak forest extends eastward 
across the Saw creek and over the fiats to West 
Camp and will be spoken of in another chapter. 

The church has stood already almost forty 
years. Who built it and why is told elsewhere. 
The trustees of Kingston Commons under date 
of March i, 1731, leased in perpetuity to Jo- 
hannes Persen and Hendrick Fees, and to their 


successors in office an acre of land on each side 
of the "Old Kings Road" for those "profess- 
ing the religion and doctrines disciplined in the 
Reformed Protestant Church of Holland ; in- 
stituted and approved by the national Synod 
of Dort -5^ * * * to build a house for 
God's worship * * ^ "^ * at a place called 
* Ye Kats Baan ; ' said place being a rock ledge 
where the King's Highway that leads from 
Kingston to Albany runs a great way upon 
said ledge ; the said two acres to be where the 
ledge or rock shows itself most open," the 
rental to be three pepper corns per annum if 
demanded; and twenty-two acres more were 
granted as a glebe to be used for the minister. 
This was situate at the north end of said open 
rock, and from thence to the Saw creek, and is 
practically the land of the Everitt and Whitney 
places. Afterwards another grant of sixteen 
and one-half acres, situate where will be the 
farm of Alfred W. Fraser, was added to the 

The church will be the same edifice in 1900, 
and yet not the same. At that later day it 
will extend seventeen feet to the south and the 
side walls will be greatly altered. At this pre- 
Revolutionary day it has a Gothic roof and the 
eaves come half-way down the side walls as 
they will be in 1900. The entrance is on the 
east side and through a porch in which hangs 




W$f T* , A 


a conch shell to announce the hour of worship. 
Over the porch and under the eaves are in- 
serted a number of brown stones inscribed with 
the names of the builders, which stones will be 
removed and inserted in the north wall when 
the church is rebuilt in 1867. There is no 
steeple nor bell. When built in 1732 there 
were no pews. These came later. And in 
November, 1743, there was a sale of seats. 
The pulpit is on the west side of the church' 
and opposite the entrance. It is an octagon 
and stands on a pedestal. An aisle through 
the centre separates the men and women. 
Across the centre another aisle runs from north 
to south so that the two aisles form a cross 
the four arms of which are of equal length. 
The half of the church on the north of the 
aisle from the door to the pulpit is occupied by 
the " manse bancken," or seats for the men, 
and on the south side by the " vrouwen banck- 
en," or seats for the women. One row of seats 
begins at the left of the minister and runs all 
around the wall on three sides to the door, 
with a corresponding row from his right hand 
around three sides to the same door. Besides 
this row there are on the men's side three rows 
of seats east and west to the cross aisle, with 
three cross rows, and on the women's side three 
east and west rows and one cross row. On the 
farther side of the cross aisle five cross rows on 


the men's side, and six for the women with one 
row on either side from the cross aisle to the 
door. At this date there is no fire in the build- 
ing in winter, but long oval stones from the 
beds of streams are heated at home and brought 
along to the services. It is not proposed to 
speak in this place of the attire of the wor- 
shipers, nor of the services. Domines Mancius 
and De Ronde will be described in another 
chapter. These pastors covered successively a 
period of forty years of faithful service among 
a faithful people. 

The story of this church will be told in 
another chapter. We will proceed upon our 
walk. Below the church hill, on the west side 
of the King's Road, lived Hermanus Recht- 
myer. His descendants in 1900, after one 
hundred and sixty-three years of occupancy, 
will still own this farm. 

Across the Beaver creek westward resides 
Hendrick Freligh. This farm was purchased 
by the Frelighs March 4, 1727, and they after- 
wards acquired the William H. Hommel farm 
as well ; while Peter Freligh, son of Hendrick, 
lived upon the Abram E. Hommel farm and 
afterwards upon the first named, or Hendrick 
Freligh farm, upon the death of his father. 
Two sons of Peter, Solomon and Moses enter- 
ed the ministry of the Dutch Reformed 
Church, as did Peter, son of Solomon. Sol- 


omon became a noted divine and professor of 
theology, and trained the Rev. Dr. Henry 
Ostrander for the ministry. He (Solomon) 
will be so ardent a patriot during the Revolu- 
tion as to be hated and hunted by the British. 
This Freligh farm during the next century will 
be known first as the Wells and then as the 
Gray farm. 

On the east side of the Old Kings Road 
resides Richard Davenport. His land stretches 
from the road from the stone church leading 
to West Camp all the way south to where, in 
1900, will be the hotel of Jacob Kaufman and 
his dwelling is here where Ephraim I. Myer 
will long afterwards live. The Davenports 
will be Tories in the Revolution and when the 
cause of England will be wiped out in patri- 
otic blood they will find more congenial neigh- 
bors in Canada, and his tract will be divided 
into three or more farms. The homestead 
will be ov/ned by Jonathan Myer, who will 
conduct a tavern here. When he dies, about 
1814, his widow will marry Elias Snyder, 
whom the Indians in 1780 will capture and 
carry to Canada, and who will escape from 
captivity. In 1823 Elias Snyder will sell the 
farm to John Snyder Myer, the father of 
Ephraim I. Myer. Adjoining the Davenport 
tract on the south is the small place of Cor- 
nelius Osterhoudt which will soon pass to the 


Fieros, and will for over a century be a tavern, 
and on the death of Mrs. Mary Fiero, in 1854, 
be successively conducted by Vander Beck, 
Gaddis, Bostwick and Jacob Kaufman. 

Next to this place on the south resides Cor- 
nelius Persen. Here is the store of the whole 
region. In the approaching war, when the 
British will occupy New York City, the mer- 
chandise will have to be hauled from Philadel- 
phia by an inland route. Here the patriotic 
meetings during the long war will be held. 
Here the recruits to reinforce the army at 
Saratoga will assemble. And after the war 
John Jacob Astor will have his headquarters 
here to which the trappers of the Catskills will 
bring their furs. The place will remain in the 
possession of the descendants of Cornelius 
Persen, the Cornelius P. Brink family, until 
about the close of the coming century. 

One-fourth of a mile farther north, on the 
west side of the Old Kings Road, is the home 
of Johannes Trumpbour. In after years the 
church will sell the glebe lands mentioned in 
this chapter, which lie north of the church and 
purchase this property and build a parsonage. 
In 1 85 1 it will be sold and be successively 
owned by Reuben Quick, John P. Sax and 
Evert Sax. 

Teunis Aspel resides on the farm westward 
which will be owned in succession by the 


Fieros; by William Valkenburgh, Peter M. 
Valkenburgh and lastly by Chauncey P. 
Finger. South of this is the farm of Petrus 
Luyck, or Loucks, on both sides of the Beaver 
creek. This will be in after years in posses- 
sion of the Fieros, then of different members 
of the Sax family until Addison Sax in 1900. 
It was purchased by Luyck March 4, 1746. 

We have now reached the Saugerties road. 
Beginning at Saugerties this follows prac- 
tically the present course of the Canoe Hill 
road of 1900 northward and westward until 
where William Clement will reside in 1900. 
Thence it will run south along the division 
fence about three hundred yards, and then 
west across the land of Cornelius Persen to 
the Old Kings Road. Thence it will follow 
this highway until within one hundred feet of 
the coming turnpike when it will turn west- 
ward and pass close alongside of where the 
limekiln of William Fiero will stand ; swing 
south around by the house of Petrus Luyck 
(Addison Sax's) ; ford the Beaver creek and 
then swing back under the hill to where will 
be the future turnpike at the residence, in 
1900, of Stephen F. Valkenburgh. This road 
will be described as running " from Sager's to 
the cedar clipje and thence to the blue moun- 
tains." This ''cedar clipje" is the large boul- 
der still lying in 1900 nearly opposite the 


Fisher store in Quarryville and was at the 
time of our walk surmounted by a cedar tree 
which will remain there until about i860. No 
houses are along this road above the long 
Quarryville hill until Saxton is reached, and 
the road runs through a dense woods. The 
invaluable quarries are unknown, and from 
them millions of dollars of bluestone are yet 
to be taken. But at Saxton there are some 
fifteen houses, and the rich plain at the foot of 
the mountains is known and cultivated. 




Our walk is resumed at the store of Cornelius 
Persen in Katsbaan. This store stands by the 
road side, and will until September 4, 1852, the 
day of the explosion of the steamer Reindeer at 
Maiden, when by a " bee" of neighbors it will 
be moved back from the road about fifty feet. 
Here it will stand until the summer of 1900, 
when it will be torn down. Meanwhile it will 
be a storehouse excepting during 1867, while 
the church is being enlarged and rebuilt, when 
the pulpit and furnishings will be placed in 
this building and it will be used for worship. 

Across the road is the blacksmith shop of 
the settlement. Here labors Jan Top, one of 
two African slaves owned by Cornelius Persen. 
Top is a character whose love of horse flesh 
and whose shrewd sayings will be spoken of 
about Katsbaan for two or three generations, 
as he will remain here until the slaves of this 
state are finally emancipated in 1827, and for 
a number of years thereafter as a freeman. 
Under a shelving rock at the foot of these pre- 
cipitous limestone walls just westward dwells 


the last Indian of this region. The reniains of 
his wigwam will remain there for seventy-five 
years, and more, and ashes may be found there 
in 1900. He is called " Nachte Jan" or Night 
John. He is a close friend of Cornelius Persen 
and when Runnip and his Indians, in 1780, will 
capture and carry of¥ to Canada Capt. Jeremiah 
Snyder and his son Elias, Nachte Jan will warn 
Persen in time to escape and save his goods 
from plunder. 

Passing south along the Old Kings Road we 
will find Johannes Young living on the east 
side of the road on lands to belong in 1900 to 
the Winne estate. The house will be standing 
after 1850, and the well will be in existence in 
1900. The part of the Winne estate on the 
west side of the road belongs to the tract 
granted Coenradt Reghtmyer, February 24, 
1728. The dwelling was where the house of 
Isaac Hommel will stand in 1900, and the old 
stone house in which Hommel will then live 
may be, in part at least, of the earlier date. 

On the west side of the Old Kings Road^ 
and in the vicinity of where Nathan Van Steen- 
berg will live in 1900 is the school house. 
Afterwards another school house will be erected 
on the opposite side of the road farther south 
on the site of the house in which Christian 
Myer will live in 1900. Here school will be 
kept until the Common School law of June 19, 


1812, is passed, when the site of the then exist- 
ing school in Katsbaan will be purchased and 
the school be continued there in successive 
buildings until 1900. But a school house will 
afterward be erected opposite the Myer house 
and be known as the Cedar Grove school. 

On the east side of the Old Kings Road and 
farther south and east than the dwelling of 
Young is the house of Johannes Mower. This 
is very near the site in 1900 of the dwelling on 
the estate of the late Peter W. Myer. It will 
pass from the Mowers into the ownership of 
the Myers, and descend from David to his 
grandson Peter. There was at one time a 
large tract in the hands of the Mower family 
and on this tract stands the house in which 
Frederick Eygenaar lives. It is east of the 
road and back in the fields northeast of where 
in 1900 William D. Brinnier will have his sum- 
mer home. The ruined house may be seen 
after i860. 

A half mile west of the Old Kings Road and 
westward from the school house is the house 
of Ury and Hermanns Hommel. At the close 
of the next century it will pass from the Hom- 
mel family to Luther Myer. Still farther west 
is living Christian Snyder. 

We will return to the Old Kings Road. As 
we go south we come to the Meals and Hayes 
grant. This contains 252 acres and was given 


those parties by Thomas Dongan, Governor of 
the province of New York, under date of April 
15, 1685. It is described as being "at a place 
called Sagiers, three miles westward from the 
mouth of the Esopus creek at a run called the 
Bever Kill." So this little stream has had its 
name from that early date. This grant stretches 
over the farms which in the next century will 
belong to the Kembles and the Wynkoops and 
reach south to the ''church land," or grant to 
the Dutch church of Kingston. Thus this 
Meals and Hayes tract will cover farther south 
than the site in 1900 of the old farmhouse of 
Mrs. Germond. The grant is long and not 
wide enough to reach as far west as the houses 
which will be in 1900 the dwellings on the Rio 
Alto Stock farm and that of Russell Wynkoop. 
Evert Wynkoop resides, as we take our walk, 
on what will be the stock farm and he is the 
great-great-grandfather of Russell Wynkoop, 
who will be the owner in 1900 of part of the 
tract. Towards the north end of this grant is 
the house of Johannes Valk nearly opposite to 
what will be after many years the Brinnier 
house spoken of. Farther south Capt. Tobias 
Wynkoop resides, where will be the Kemble 
house of the Nineteenth Century. And near 
ihe south bounds of the grant is the house of 
William Myer, where long afterward will stand 
the old farmhouse of Mrs. Germond. On 


the east side of the road, and farther south, 
Ephraim Van Keuren lives on the site at the 
large spring where in 1900 Abram Wolven will 
reside, and farther south on the hill will be after 
the Revolution the hotel of Johannes Myer, 
whose farm will be in 1900 in possession of 
Wells Myer, his grandson. This tavern will be 
in twenty-five years a noted hostelry. Aaron 
Burr, among other public men, will make it a 
frequent stopping place on his trips to and from 
Albany. Here he will enjoy many an even- 
ing's chat with mine host '' Oom Hans Myer," 
with whom he had served in the Continental 
army, and stories of the brilliant and fascinat- 
ing Col. Burr will linger long in the traditions 
of the vicinity of this tavern and that of Abra- 
ham Post in Saugerties, where he so often re- 
sorted. A mile farther west beyond the great 
bend of the Beaver creek resides Maria Snyder 
on the farm in after years of Noah Snyder, 
which will be in possession of John J. Jordan 
in 1900. And a little farther east is that of 
Hieronymus Valkenburgh, whose descendant 
John Valkenburgh will sell it near the close of 
the next century to Thomas Spellman, who 
will dispose of it to the West Shore Railroad 
Co. And a short distance north is the house 
of Johannes Hommel on the Peter I. Snyder 
farm of after years. 

We have walked from Katsbaan to Union- 


ville. We return to the house of Cornelius 
Persen in Katsbaan and pass down the road 
that winds across the fields to Saugerties. 
Here is the residence of Wilhelmus Valk. 
This farm will remain in possession of the Valk 
family until 1870, when Peter V. Snyder will 
purchase it. The road here runs east, but 
soon turns southeast and crosses this little 
brook. Beyond this and on the east side of 
the road resides Hendrick Osterhoudt, where 
long afterwards will dwell Cornelius Hoff. A 
mile farther south, where afterwards will run 
the " People's Road," lives Adam Short on the 
gravel hill. His house will long remain and be 
called " the old fort." Farther east and near 
what will long afterward be the Brede crossing 
of the West Shore railroad are living John 
Monk and John Fennal. A quarter mile south 
from them, and west of the Canoe Hill road, 
and south of the above " People's Road," on 
what will in 1900 be the Cantine farm, just 
below the hill in front of the Lasher house, is 
living Petrus Eygenaar whose farm stretches 
across the flat to the Canoe Hill. Thus we are 
brought to Saugerties, described in Chapter X. 



The next pre-Revolutionary walk about 
town will be down the Old Kings Road to the 
southern boundary of the town at the bridge 
over the Plattekill. We will assemble at the 
inn of Johannes Myer, which stands where 
Wells Myer will reside a century later. 

As we get ready suppose we talk of this Old 
Kings Road. It is the oldest highway in the 
town. The first allusion to it occurs in a 
petition of John Osterhoudt, Jan Burhans and 
Cornelius Vernoy, all of Kingston, to a special 
court held in April, 1670, at " ye towne hall 
at Kingston, in Esopus " by a commission 
appointed by Governor Francis Lovelace '' for 
setting out the Boundaryes of Kingston, 
Hurley, and Marbleton and for Regulateing 
the Affaires of those places and ye parts 
adjacent." The petitioners ask "that fifty- 
foure acres cleare and good land that his 
Honr, the Govr, hath been pleased to promise 
and grant them on a certain neck of land five 
miles distant from Kingston, north, over the 


Kill and near the ffootpath leading to Albany 
be commended to the Govr. to be confirmed 
and allowed." With this petition there was 
one by Tjerck Claes DeWitt and William 
Montania for a grant to set up a saw mill for 
the public benefit at the same place, with 
seventy five acres a mile further at a place 
called ''Dead Men's Bones." This too was 
granted on condition that the above five 
petitioners, with two others build their seven 
houses all together in an "innshipp" for 
mutual protection. The spot where the mill 
was to be, and was erected, was at what will 
be our stopping point to-day at the bridge 
over the Plattekill between the towns of Sau- 
gerties and Ulster. The " ffootpath " to 
Albany was where is now the Old Kings 
Road. On June 19, 1703, an act was passed 
by the colonial legislature " for the laying out, 
regulating, clearing and preserving public 
Common Highways throughout this Colony." 
This act directed that a road be laid out from 
the New Jersey line to Albany, and the com- 
missioners from Ulster county were John 
Cock, Jacob Aertsen and Abraham Hasbrouck. 
This road passed through Goshen, Shawan- 
gunk. New Paltz and Rosendale, to Kingston; 
thence north, through Fox Hall and Pine 
Bush to the fording place across the Esopus 
creek, at the mouth of the Sawkill ; thence on 


the west side of the Esopus creek northerly to 
Albany. As Queen Anne was reigning it was 
named "The Queen's Highway," and so 
appears in old deeds. But as no female sov- 
ereign sat on the British throne again while 
New York was a colony the name of ** The 
Old King's Road " soon displaced the other. 

In our former walks we have endeavored to 
locate the houses and families and tell who 
was residing in them as we passed by. On 
this trip we will merely speak of the grants of 
land we pass and of some of the features. As 
we leave the inn of Johannes Myer the tract 
on the west side of the road is the " Church- 
land" and it will give the name to the locality. 
It is a grant of two hundred acres originally 
made March i, 1710, to the Kingston Dutch 
Church and greatly enlarged by grants of 
adjoining lands, and land in the vicinity made 
subsequently. The original grant begins on 
the small stream called in the grant ''The 
Muddah Kill" and runs to the mountains 
(Mt. Marion) and thence north along the 
mountains to the Meals and Hayes patent ; 
then along their south bounds to and across 
the "Queen's Highway." The northwest part 
of the grant will be the farm of the heirs of 
Isaac Snyder. In this grant the small stream 
running past what will be the house of Peter 
B. Post is called "Cartrit's Kill." 


South of the churchland is the grant of 
Frederick Markle. It was originally of eighty- 
four acres, with later additions. The first 
grant bore date March i, 171 5. This will be 
the farm of C. S. Lowther. The bounds are 
given thus: Northwest by the Styll Berg 
(Mt. Marion) and southwest, southeast and 
northeast by Kingston Commons. Thus no 
adjacent lands had been granted at that time. 

Then crossing to the east side of the Old 
Kings Road we find the farm of Christian 
Myer, one of the most prominent of the Pala- 
tines who landed at West Camp, October 4, 
1710. His deed was given 21 February, 1724. 
It will be the Cantine farm of 1900. In the 
deed is described the cave of the Muddah Kill 
which is so well known to residents of Sau- 

Next south is the farm of Peter Winne. This 
will pass into the possession of David Polhe- 
mus, Benjamin Myer and towards the close of 
the next century to Mynderse Wynkoop. It 
will be the birthplace of the late Dr. Jesse 
Myer, of Kingston, and of the father of the 
late John G. Myers, of this village. 

Some distance south of the Markle land is 
the place of Cornelius Langendyke, which will 
remain in the Longendyke family for more 
than one hundred years when it will be pur- 
chased by Peter Snyder. The lands reached 


down to the Plattekill, above the Gilsinger 
falls. Part of this land was known in 1725 as 
*' Robert Chism's plantation." Adjoining the 
Longendyke farm Frederick Scram on March 
28, 1729, purchased 42 acres along the land of 
Tunis Osterhoudt which included part of the 
Traphagen tract now to be mentioned. But 
all the flats north and east to the Winne land 
at the Muddah Kill are still commons. Only 
where a century later Francis Myer and Alex- 
ander Dowling will live are two small houses. 

We are now come to the Traphagen tract 
which passes the doors of where Myer and 
Dowling will live. On the fifth day of Decem- 
ber 1688, there was granted to Johannes, Hen- 
drick and William Traphagen a long, narrow 
strip of land containing two hundred and fifty 
acres, the north bounds of which were near the 
West Shore crossing of 1900 south of Scher- 
mei horn's, and the south bounds reached 
almost to where in coming years will be the 
Plattekill church. It did not reach farther 
east than where in after years will be the Mt. 
Marion station of the West Shore railroad, nor 
as far west as the hotel west of that station. 
At its southeast corner it almost touches" a 
triangular grant of 133 acres to Paulus Paulison, 
which runs diagonally to where will be, in 1900, 
the covered bridge over the Plattekill into the 
town of Ulster. Its base is almost on the line 


of the West Shore south from the railroad sta- 
tion. This grant was given in 1688, but subse- 
quent to the Brink grant mentioned below, and 
occasioned trouble as the bounds of the Pauli- 
son grant infringed upon the preceding one to 
Brink. On the west side of the Old Kings 
Road are the eighty-six acres, and the subse- 
quent forty additional ones granted to Peter 
Winne. Here in 1900 will be the Ira Snyder 
farm. This was first conveyed December 15, 
1692. It will remain with the descendants of 
Peter Winne until almost 1900. Its west bound 
is the Plattekill, its south bound the Brink 
tract and its east bound the Old Kings Road. 
On the west side of the Plattekill and across 
from the Winne grant are fifty-one acres sold 
to Lucas DeWitt February 24, 1728. 

We have reached the last grant in the town 
and one of the very first in point of time. It 
was purchased by Cornelius Lambertsen Brink 
February 6, 1688, from the trustees of the 
Kingston Commons. Huybert Lambertsen 
Brink emigrated from Wageningen, Holland, 
and arrived in New York December, 1659, on 
the ship Faith. The above son Cornelius was 
born on the voyage. The father settled in 
Kingston and then became one of the original 
patentees of Hurley and moved there. In 
1663, at the Indian massacre of Kingston, his 
wife and three children, including Cornelius, 


were captured by the Indians and carried to 
the Shawangunk mountains where they were 
held captives three months. At last they 
were rescued and restored to their family. 
When Cornelius was twenty-six years of age 
he married Maretje Meynderse and three 
years later bought the tract spoken of on 
which we stand. It follows the Plattekill from 
this covered bridge to the Esopus and then 
down below the coming West Shore bridge 
and the falls. He built this old stone house 
and it will be the residence of a descendant, 
Reuben Brink, two hundred years after this, 
when it will pass into the possession of 
Charles Brink, another descendant, who previ- 
ously owned another part of the same grant. 
Another part will be long in the possession of 
Peter H. Brink, of the same family, and then 
be owned by the Finger estate. Here is the 
covered wooden bridge over the Plattekill and 
the line of the town of Ulster. It is the limit 
of our walk. 



Following the road to "the blue mountains 
by way of the cedar clipje " we will attempt to 
locate the families settled there before the 
Revolution. This is rendered more difficult 
than in other parts of the the town as the 
records of early deeds and grants in the office 
of the county clerk give but little assistance. 
But it can be done approximately. 

As we pass up the road through the future 
Quarryville all is the silence of a dense forest 
in which is the budding of spring, and the 
early song of countless birds is heard alone. 
As we reach the plain at the foot of the Cats- 
kills we find spreading farms around. The 
Dutch settlers had a native scent for fertile 
lands and soon learned what was to be had at 
the foot of the mountains. 

Somewhere in the vicinity of the iron bridge 
of 1900, on the road from Saugerties to Wood- 
stock. Hendrick Wolven, John Wolven and 
Jacob Brink are living, and northeast from 
them Tunis Shoe. We cannot locate them ex- 



actly and will not pass so far south. We have 
reached the farm where, towards the close of 
the next century, Milton Crapser will live and 
die. Here is living Capt. Jeremiah Snyder, of 
the First Ulster Regiment, and his son Elias. 
They are very ardent patriots, and very efficient 
in the cause, and have incurred the enmity of 
their Tory neighbors, of whom there are a 
number here along these mountains and near 
the county line. In May, 1780, incited by 
these disloyal neighbors, a band of Indians will 
carry the captain and his son to Niagara and 
Canada as captives. Just north of Snyder's, 
near the residence in 1900 of John S. Over- 
baugh, is living Lawrence Winne, and across 
the Plattekill, a half mile east, resides Matthias 
Markle. North of Winne's about half a mile 
is the house of Evert DeWitt, and a little 
farther north is living Aaron Winne with Fred- 
erick Rowe, Jr., as a near neighbor. This 
Rowe, a Tory, will be met by Capt. Snyder 
while a captive on his way to Canada, frater- 
nizing with his Indian and Tory friends. 

We are now come to where in the next cen- 
tury will be the residence of Col. Christopher 
Fiero, and the birthplace of his son, J. Newton 
Fiero. Near this spot resides Samuel Wells, 
who will be an ancestor of the wife of 
Col. Fiero. And proceeding north over what 
will be in coming years the Saxton flats we 


pass in succession the houses of Luke DeWitt, 
Johannes Rowe, William Burhans, Michael 
Plank and John Burhans before reaching the 
county line. Johannes Plank is living across 
the fields near what, in 1900, will be the home 
of William Winne. Of these John Burhans, 
William Burhans, Johannes Rowe, Johannes 
Plank, Jr., and Frederick Rowe, Jr , will be 
ardent loyalists and for this reason hated in- 
tensely by their patriotic neighbors. 

Having reached the Albany county line 
(soon to be Greene county), we will descend 
by a road through the woods to what will be 
Asbury. As we reach the lowlands under the 
range of hills northeast of the future Quarry- 
ville, we find Myndert Dederick living on what 
will be afterwards the homestead of John Ded- 
erick (late Chidester's) and farther east is the 
dwelling of William Dederick; while south, 
near where in 1900 Gideon P. Ostrander will 
live, is living Wilhelmus Rowe. Thence cross- 
ing over to the Katsbaan church and passing 
north we find Peter McGee dwelling near where 
James E. Dederick is to live in the next cen- 
tury, while farther south, along the Saw creek, 
resides Johannes Shoub. 

Let us walk on north. Crossing to the west 
side of the Old Kings Road we find Hans Ury 
Eligh on the Andries Eligh farm, to be owned 
later by Nicholas Mower. Farther northeast 


across the Kings Road are the lands of 
Christian Dederick, with the house of John 
Luke just south of Dederick's ; and at Asbury, 
on the west side of the above road, reside 
Zachariah Snyder and Evert Wynkoop. Far- 
ther north and east of the road, at the county 
line, is living Valentine Fiero. On his lands 
is the *' Steene Herte Fonteyne " (Stone 
Heart Spring), or source of the Saw creek, 
and thus the northeast corner both of Ulster 
county up to 1767, and of the patent of the 
Kingston Commons. Its location was the 
occasion of dispute and legal strife during a 
severe litigation, in 1738. The question arose, 
''Where did Albany county begin?" In the 
original description Albany county extended 
south to the Sawyer's creek. Ulster extended 
north to the Sawyer's creek. Now, what was 
meant ? The mouth of Sawyer's creek is at 
Saugerties village on the Hudson. The 
source is the above spring west of the ** Big 
Vly." The trustees of Kingston Commons 
contended that Albany county came to the 
source of the creek and followed it to the 
river. The assessors of the town compelled 
the trustees to indemnify them, which was 
annually done, and at last the strife was ended 
by granting the contention of the trustees. 
Afterwards the county line was continued in a 
straight line to the river. 



Not only was the question of the boundary 
involved, but it included that of the bounds of 
the Kingston Commons. The trustees had 
begun a number of ejectment suits in which 
the question of title was raised. This had to 
be determined by locating the county line as 
this was the bound of the Commons. As told 
in Schoonmaker's " History of Kingston " one 
of the witnesses testified : 

** Margaret Snyder, the wife of Zachariah 
Snyder, being duly sworn deposeth and saith, 
that she is the daughter of Valentine (Felte) 
Fiero, * * ^ that she was born and 
brought up at her father's, and after being 
married removed to near the * Steene Herte,* 
and lived there until about twenty years ago. 
When she was ten, twelve, or thirteen years of 
age her father turned the cattle (as she 
believes about the 25th April) in the woods 
near the Steene Herte Fonteyne where one of 
the cows was entangled in the morass. She 
went to see, and found a cow, which she 
called her own, just drawn out. * * * 

" Her father having cut a switch, took her 
to the north side of the Steene Herte rock, 
and taking her by the hair, told her he would 
give her something to remember, that that 
side was Albany, showing her letters, and gave 
her a smart whipping. After which he took 
her to the south side of said rock and told her 


that side was Esopus, and pointed at letters 
on that side of the rock, and giving her a 
second whipping told her to remember that 
he had been flag bearer, and Peter York and 
Nicholas Branden chain bearers on the survey, 
and that was the line between Albany and 
Esopus, etc." 

In the illustration the spring is given and 
the overhanging rock, which from the spring 
resembles, measureably, a heart rudely shaped 
in stone. The spring is on the west side of 
the ** Big Vly," at the point where the Saw 
creek is the outlet and thus was at that time 
the northeast corner of Ulster county, and of 
Kingston Commons. 

Suppose we retrace our steps and go to the 
river along this creek, the county line. Before 
we reach the vicinity of the Katsbaan church 
we come into a great forest of immense white 
oaks extending a mile each way over the flats 
towards West Camp. These flats are very low 
and swampy. The trees are of tremendous 
girth, height and age. A very few will still 
remain in 1900 at Katsbaan church, but the 
spreading forest will be cleared by the grand- 
father of the Cornelius Hoff, who will reside in 
1900 on the Canoe Hill road. 

Immediately east from the church, on the 
east side of the Saw creek, and thus in Albany 
county until 1767, is the patent of Dederick 



Mauterstock which stretches to the east and 
south for many hundreds of acres. Part of 
this land will be in possession in 1900 of John 
H. Mauterstock, a descendant. Farther south 
are fifty acres granted to Peter Mowerse. 
This is the land which will lie in 1900 where 
the creek will turn east before it reaches the 
Maiden turnpike and will be at that date the 
land of Jerenniah Mower and Mrs. Ellinger. 
The "Muddy Kill" of 1900 is called, as we 
walk, " The kill from the fountain," which 
fountain will still flow with a large stream in 
1900, before the door of William Valk. In 
the deed of Mowerse the hill east of what will, 
in the next century, be the Hoff place, is 
called " Armpachlo's bergh," or, in English, 
" the hill of poor duds." This deed of Mow- 
erse was given February 24, 1728. West of 
the Mowerse land is a small piece of glebe of 
the Katsbaan church which will belong to 
Alfred W. Fraser in 1900. 

Our course is still along the Saw creek south 
and east. Here is the farm which will be 
owned next century by Michael and then by 
Luther Fiero. Now it is the possession of 
Robert Beaver, who purchased it February 28, 
1735. It is described as lying east of "Arm- 
pachlo's bergh," and he has more land farther 
south and east of the next, or Canoe Hill. 
This word, spelled " Kanow Hill," first appears 


in a deed given to Hiskia DuBois February 25, 

Once more we have reached the patent to 
Meals and Hayes which lies east of the trotting 
course at Saugerties and stretches north beyond 
the north end of the Washington avenue of 
igoo, and have thus reached the settlement at 
Saugerties described in a former chapter. 



The northeast portion of the town of Sau- 
gerties, between the Saw creek and the Hudson 
was a part of Albany county until 1767, as 
heretofore stated. Greene county was formed 
in 1800. This territory is what will afterwards 
be Maiden and West Camp, with the adjacent 
farm lands. Starting from the mouth of Saw- 
yer's creek, and proceeding north we first pass 
over the fields of the Brink farm until we reach 
what will in 1900 be the lands of John G. 
Myers. We have now reached the Major Dan 
Wolven grant, or Gottfried De Wolfen tract, 
as it is sometimes called. Almost the whole 
of this corner of the town was originally cov- 
ered by patents or grants. The first was this of 
Wolven. On the north, adjoining, was that of 
Myndert Schutt. Bordering on the Schutt 
grant on the north was the long grant to 
Fullerton which reached from the Schutt tract 
to the county line at Wanton Island. The 
" Big Vly " was covered by one of the Meals 
and Hayes grants ; Dederick Mauterstock had 


a large triangular patent west of Fullerton, 
while reaching to the north end of the Wash- 
ington avenue of 1900, from the north line of 
the corporation of Saugerties village was 
another large patent of Meals and Hayes. 

But we will stop a moment at the stone 
house of Major Wolven and speak of what is 
to happen in October, 1777. Burgoyne will be 
surrounded at Saratoga by the patriot forces 
and must surrender, if not relieved. The 
farmers from this vicinity will be in the Ameri- 
can army there. Sir Henry Clinton will send 
Gen. Vaughan up the river from New York on 
a marauding expedition to lay waste the coun- 
try from which every available soldier will be 
either with Gen. Gates at Saratoga, or with 
Governor Clinton defending the Highlands of 
the Hudson. From where we stand we can 
see the smoke ascend when Vaughan burns 
Kingston, and his marauding vessels will come 
as far as here. On the opposite side of the 
Hudson the buildings of Gen. Petrus Ten- 
Broeck, the house, barn and out houses of 
Robert G. Livingston, and a house and mill of 
Chancellor Livingston will be burned the day 
after Kingston is destroyed. The next day 
another house of the chancellor will be burned, 
one of John Livingston, and three others be- 
longing to neighbors. Then a house on the 
east side belonging to Judge Smith will be con- 


sumed, when the British will cross to this 
side of the river. They will find here a sloop, 
or brig, at anchor and one on the stocks and 
burn them. They will land at this house of 
Major Wolven and set it on fire, but the fire 
will go out and the charred spot will be visible 
during the next century, A detachment will 
start for the Brink place, but before it reaches 
it a signal gun from Vaughan's ship will recall 
it as the news has reached Vaughan of Bur- 
goyne's surrender and the vessels will come 
about and immediately proceed to New York. 
But, meanwhile, the wife of John Brink, whose 
husband is with the army at Saratoga, flees 
with her child and carries him all the way to 
Woodstock for safety. 

This tract of Major Wolven reaches all the 
way along the river to a point just north of 
where next century will stand the store of the 
Ishams in the village of Maiden, and to the 
bounds of the Myndert Schutt tract. On 
May 9, 1808, two hundred acres of it will be 
sold to Asa Bigelow and Samuel Isham for 
$6,000. At this time Bigelow will have a gen- 
eral store in Saugerties on the site of the 
future Russell Block which he will own. In 
this store will be the first post office of the 
village and Bigelow be the first postmaster. 
Before this day there will be a tri-wcekly mail 
from New York to Albany on the west side of 


the Hudson by the Old Kings Road, returning 
on alternate days, arid letters and mail be left 
at the store of Cornelius Persen in Katsbaan. 
It is a long cry and distinct advance which 
before the century closes will see frequent 
daily mails in the village, and daily rural free 
delivery all over the town. 

Soon after the purchase of the Wolven tract 
Bigelow and Isham will begin to build a frame 
store on the street, in Maiden, leading to what 
will be afterwards the Isham dock. In 1814, 
they will build the brick store, afterwards to 
be known as the Isham store. This will be 
near the north end of the Wolven tract. In 
1813, Bigelow will purchase of John Van 
Steenberg a part of the Schutt grant and on 
it in 1818, he will build a stone building still 
to be used in 1900 as the Blue Stone Co. 
ofifice, having previously withdrawn from the 
partnership with Isham. Here is to grow up 
the village of Bristol, which will be called 
Maiden, later, so as to secure a post ofifice. 
From this place a turnpike will be built in 
1826 to Palenville, and here will be established 
one of the most successful industries in this 
state in buying, selling and manufacturing 
blue stone. On November 6, 181 5, Bigelow 
and Isham will sell the south end of the 
Wolven tract to William Myer, from whose 
heirs it will pass December, i860, through 


Russell N. Isaacs to Francis Pidgeon, and 
from him to John G. Myers. 

Adjoining the Wolven grant on the north is 
that of Myndert Schutt. It reaches west to 
the Sawyer's creek and north to the Fullerton 
patent. The dwelling of Myndert Schutt was 
built about 1712 and will be standing down 
through the next century. Myndert Schutt 
married Sarah Persen, of the family at Sau- 
gerties who became the owners of the Meals 
and Hayes patent at the mouth of the Esopus 
creek, and their daughter Maria Schutt mar- 
ried Abraham Post, from whom the Post fam- 
ily, who will be so prominent in the early 
history of this village, is descended. Most of 
the Schutt grant passed into the possession of 
Abraham Post. Then Thomas VanSteenberg 
purchased 183 acres in 1757, so that at the 
time of our walk the tract is comparatively 

From the Schutt grant north to the county 
line of 1900 is the Fullerton patent. It reach- 
ed almost as far west as the patent of Meals 
and Hayes, which covered the ** Big Vly," and 
contained about eight hundred acres. When 
the Palatines were brought over from England 
in 1710 by Governor Robert Hunter and 
settled at East Camp and West Camp in 
October of that year. Gov. Hunter was com- 
pelled to purchase lands for them. On the 


east side of the river he purchased 6,000 acres 
of Livingston, but on the west side he could 
not find sufficient land available and covered 
with pines from which naval stores of tar, 
pitch, resin and turpentine could be made. 
After considerable negotiation he succeeded 
in purchasing this patent from its possessor, 
Thomas FuUerton, who was an ofificer in the 
Royal Custom's Service in Scotland. This 
tract had been granted by Governor Thomas 
Dongan February 28, 1687, to Robert Fuller- 
ton and lay southwest from Wanton island. 
On this Fullerton tract the Palatines were dis- 
embarked October 4, 1710, and gathered in- 
to three villages convenient to the pines call- 
ed Elizabethtown, Newtown and Georgetown. 
These villages were only a mile apart, but as 
they were merely of log huts for those who 
were cutting pines for tar, etc., they perished 
when the enterprise was abandoned and the 
colonists scattered to become possessors of 
farms of their own. This was not as easy 
upon this Fullerton patent as it was a mile 
farther west upon the lands of Kingston Com- 
mons and most of the enterprising among the 
Palatines passed over and soon acquired farms 
from the trustees and mingled with and inter- 
married among the Dutch. 

The name of Fullerton will long survive. 
There is in existence a map of General Bur- 


goyne on which were located the places on the 
west side of the Hudson, where he meant to 
encamp his army on his march to New York 
after capturing Albany, provided he defeated 
our army. One of these encampments was to 
be at " Katsbaan near FuUerton." But 

*'The best laid schemes of mice and men 
Gang aft agley," 

Burgoyne came to Albany, but tradition 
says he rode a paroled prisoner in an ambu- 
lance wagon driven by '' Oom Hans Myer," 
who afterwards kept the inn in this town, 
where, in 1900, his descendant, Wells Myer, 
will live, as told in a former chapter, and when 
this wagon was driven through Katsbaan on 
its way home Burgoyne was on his way under 
parole to England. It might be in place to 
state that a part of the box of this wagon is 
preserved in the Senate House in Kingston. 



We have now looked into the condition of 
the whole of the town which was settled 
before the Revolutionary war, except the 
peninsula formed by the Hudson river on the 
east and the Esopus creek on the north and 
west. This region is Glasco, Flatbush and 

When Kingston Commons was originally 
laid out and mapped the woodland, mountain- 
ous and wild lands were divided into what was 
there denominated classes. The third, fourth, 
fifth and six classes covered the wild lands 
from the south bounds of the town to Albany 
county line covering the hills, some of the 
peaks of which were afterwards called Mt. 
Marion, Mt. Airy, etc. The seventh class lay 
on the east side of the Esopus creek and 
began at the mouth of that creek on the south 
side, and ran up the creek to Glenerie falls, 
(upper falls) ; then easterly to where the 
settled lands in Flatbush appeared, and thence 
north to a point northwest of where in the 


next century will be the hotel of Schoentag. 
Thus the half of this part of the town was 
wild land and much of it will so remain until 
1900. In this portion a grant of one hundred 
acres was made to Arent Tunis Pier. On this 
grant will be the site of the Glenerie of the 
future as it lies on the east and south side of 
the Esopus. The grant was dated December 
5, 1688. This fine water-privilege will not be 
used to a great extent except the upper falls 
upon which a fulling mill and afterwards a 
paint mill will be erected. The middle falls 
will never be harnessed and little will be done 
with the lowest, or Glenerie falls proper, until 
about 1835, when Coloael Edward Clark will 
establish a white-lead plant there, which will 
be developed by his successors, Battelle & 
Renwick, into one of the best in the United 
States. Around it will spring up one of the 
most beautiful of small villages until the com- 
pany will be absorbed into a great white lead 
trust, when the works will be abandoned, and 
the village be deserted and fall into ruin. 

Our tramp will begin on the hill afterwards 
to be called Ury, and later Barclay Heights. 
This hill is reached from the -village by cross- 
ing the Esopus on a scow ferry above the 
upper falls at Stony Point. Later another 
such ferry will run from the foot of the future 
MacCarthy street at Phillips' boat yard. The 


wooden arch bridge of 1839, ^^ith its successor 
the iron bridge of 1874, will abolish these fer- 
ries. But during the summer of the latter 
year, while the iron bridge is building, this 
ferry will be re-established from Phillips' for a 
number of weeks. As we journey south from 
the top of the hill in these days of old we find 
first the lands of Edward Wood. Part of this ^ 

property was purchased from the Meals and 
Hayes grant, but on March 4, 1734, he bought 
thirty-four acres of the trustees of Kingston 
Commons. During the Revolution a tavern 
will be kept here by Hendrick Schoonmaker 
for some years. In 1825, the property will 
pass into the possession of Henry Barclay, the 
founder of the future village of Saugerties, 
who will build his residence here and will live 
to 185 1. In 1854 his dwelling will be torn 
down to erect the residence of Joseph B. 

Next south is the land conveyed by the 
trustees to Tjerck Schoonmaker on March 4, 
1734, the day of the conveyance to Wood. 
On part of this Mynderse Schoonmaker will 
Hve in 1900. West of this is the grant to 
John Legg, or Laig. This was made Febru- 
ary 24, 1740. This will be the Richard C. 
Washburn place of 1900. Legg's descendants, K 
Samuel Legg and William Legg, will be mer- 
chants at the upper landing soon after the 


Revolution, and later a Samuel Legg, a 
descendant, will nnake a moderate fortune 
here as the manufacturer of a whip, known 
up and down the valley of the Hudson as the 
*' Esopus whip," which drivers will consider 

To Peter VanLeuven on March i, 1731, and 
to Andries VanLeuven February 6, 1747, and 
at subsequent times were granted large tracts 
of land further south along the river and west 
to the Esopus creek. These lands covered 
the Spaulding place of 1900, and reached to 
Glasco. They will remain for a century in the 
family and among the descendants. The site 
of the future village of Glasco is at present 
ungranted land, but on September 15, 1786, 
the trustees will convey a tract to Herman 
Minklaer which will reach along the Hudson 
beyond the south bounds of the coming 

The river bank south was originally granted 
by Governor Dongan to Jan Mattysson & Com- 
pany, in a patent dated February 13, 1688. In 
this grant were six hundred acres and it was 
divided into two hundred acres to Capt. John 
Spragge on the north; two hundred acres to 
Mattys Mattysson in the middle and two hun- 
dred acres to Claes Westphalen and Abel West- 
phalen to the south and reaching to Kalkoene 
Hoeck (Turkey Point). At this point it bound- 


ed on the Haines grant which extended over 
into the bounds of the town of Ulster. But 
the patent lapsed in some unknown way and 
the tract became part of Kingston Commons. 
On January 22, 1722, the trustees deeded 
thirty-five acres on the north end of this tract 
to James Whitaker, whose lands are described 
as being over against Magdalen Island and 
bounded on the west by lands of John Laig. 
He also had seventeen acres lying west of a 
hill called " Rondebergh," while south of the 
lands of John Laig, and southwest of those of 
Whitaker, a tract of land had been granted to 
Lawrence Swart. Much of this property will 
remain in the possession of descendants of 
Whitaker during the next century until in the 
latter half it will be owned by Egbert Whitaker 
of this village. 

During the Revolution, on August 24, 1781, 
the trustees granted to James Osterhoudt, 
Petrus Burhans, Samuel Burhans, Isaac Bur- 
hans and Abraham Burhans, all of Flatbush, 
all those lands situate at Flatbush south and 
east of a line running along the south bounds 
of Jecobus (James) Whitaker from a point on 
the road eastward to the Hudson. This grant 
extended south to the Haines patent. A very 
large proportion of this tract will be in 1900 in 
possession of the different branches of the 
Osterhoudt family and their descendants. 


We have now tramped over the whole of 
the town which was settled previous to the 
Revolution. While the writer does not claim 
to have found the house of every settler, nor 
even to have located every original patent, 
grant, or conveyance of land he feels he has 
done so with as many of them as can be de- 
termined at this late day, more than one hun- 
dred and twenty-five years from the beginning 
of that war, and at least some two hundred and 
twenty-five years from the original settlement 
of the town. 

He has found a number of tracts, lots and 
farms which he is unable to locate after long- 
continued search among old deeds, etc., which 
are, at least, one hundred and seventy-five years 
old. As a specimen he will mention sixty 
acres conveyed to Christian Fiero. He was 
one of the elders when the Katsbaan church 
was built in 1732. From him, probably, all 
those of that name in this town are descended. 
On June 14, 1728, the trustees of Kingston 
Commons granted him a parcel of land " at the 
southwest end of a place called Tryn Claesen 
Vlackten " (the flats of Catherine, wife of 
Nicholas), containing sixty acres. February 
28, 1729, the trustees granted Johannes Ever- 
hard sixty acres adjoining, and on the same 
day sixty acres more to Daniel Miller adjacent 
to the land of Everhard, with the further de- 


scription that it lay at the foot of a high hill. 
Here are one hundred and eighty acres of land. 
Where did it lie ? There is no record of a 
subsequent purchaser. It was "flats." And 
it is noticeable that no upland was taken up 
until all the level land was. No one coming 
from low and level Holland secured anything 
else as long as level lands could be obtained. 
There seems to be no place from the Plattekill 
to the Greene county line where one hundred 
and eighty acres could be crowded in which he 
has not covered. 

In 1803 and 1804 the trustees finally divided 
the commons, or corporate lands, among the 
inhabitants entitled thereto, and on December 
13, 1816, assigned the funds in their possession 
to the supervisors and the overseers of the poor 
of the towns of Esopus, Saugerties and Kings- 
ton and then, after a corporate existence of 
one hundred and thirty years finally and per- 
manently dissolved. 



Preceding chapters have brought the story 
of the town of Saugerties down to the begin- 
ning of the Revolutionary war. There were 
less than seven hundred and fifty inhabitants 
within the borders of the town in 1775, and 
of these not one hundred within the bounds of 
this village. Neither Maiden nor Glasco ex- 
isted. Not a soul lived where are now pop- 
ulous quarry villages. Katsbaan and West 
Camp had probably as many residents as they 
have to-day. And a few farmers were settled 
in Plattekill, Flatbush and Saxton. 

Despite the fact that schools had begun to 
teach the English language it was rarely 
spoken. Public documents must needs be 
written in English. Nevertheless many made 
their wills in Dutch. Aside from this all busi- 
ness was in Dutch, as was all conversation. 
Among the Palatine settlers and their descend- 
ants were many who still spoke German, espe- 
cially among those Lutheran families who had 
not intermingled with the Dutch. And the 
writer remembers Palatine German speech 


among such families as late as the civil war of 
1861-5. The services in the West Camp 
church were in German for many years, and 
when Rev. George W. Mancius came to Kats- 
baan in 1730, he preached at first in German. 
When he went to serve the church in Kingston 
in 1732, as colleague of Rev. Petrus Vas, the 
consistory of that church gave him two years 
to perfect himself in Dutch speech. He was a 
learned man of remarkable linguistic acquire- 
ments, being able to speak nine different lan- 
guages. But German at the Katsbaan church 
was very soon superseded by Dutch, and in the 
latter language all the services were held until 
the coming of Rev. James David Demarest 
as pastor in 1808. When Rev. Dr. Henry 
Ostrander was settled in 1812, he continued 
English services with stated ones in Dutch for 
many who could hardly understand the Eng- 
lish, or who were able to worship with less 
restraint in their mother tongue. But time 
changed it all. Down to the last generation 
there were many families in which Dutch was 
the language of the household, and even as 
late as 1900 the writer knew a number of homes 
in the town in which all family affairs were still 
discussed in the old tongue and around the 
table both parents and children used the speech 
brought from Holland almost three hundred 
years ago. But the next generation will know 


it not. Dutch words and expression survive 
and will continue with Dutch force of charac- 
ter, but the tongue has become a memory along 
the Hudson. 

Among those who were residing in 1775 
within what is now the town of Saugerties 
were but two or three English families. All 
the others were of Dutch, Palatine, or Hugue- 
not origin. Hence there was no prepossession 
in favor of England here. On the whole her 
government had been just and liberal until the 
advent to power of Lord North and his ultra 
Tory ministry. A conflict had been going on 
in the Reformed church for years which is 
known as the Coetus and Conferentie strife, and 
which, in 1772, was decided in favor of the 
former. The Conferentie party wished the 
church to remain under control of the Church 
of Holland. The former, or Coetus party, 
wished it to be American and free. This long 
strife had educated the Dutchmen in the prin- 
ciples of Americanism, although the conserva- 
tive Dutch of this town were largely Confer- 
entie. But Rev. Lambertus DeRonde, the 
pastor of the Katsbaan church during the Rev- 
olution, preached the sermon at the Synod 
which had united the factions and henceforth 
the Reformed Church was to be free from 
European control. This was in 1772, and 
when Lexington was fought, April 19, 1775, 


three years of complete Americanism had had 
its influence upon the men of Saugerties. 
There was no village of size in the town. But 
the tavern of Abraham Post in Saugerties and 
the store of Cornelius Persen in Katsbaan had 
known many discussions of the principles at 
stake and the disputants were awake to the 
fact that Americans could and must resist 
tyranny, and were able to regulate their own 
affairs, while many were holding that they 
could govern themselves. 

The high handed measures of the British 
Crown so thoroughly awakened the patriots of 
Ulster county that a meeting was held in 
Hurley on the sixth of January, 1775, to 
arouse the people to resist the demands of 
tyranny, and its enroachments. This was fol- 
lowed by a meeting of the patriots of the 
town of Kingston which then included the 
town of Saugerties. A Committee of Obser- 
vation was appointed consisting of seven 
members, of which three were from Sau- 
gerties, viz: Johannes Persen, Christian Fiero 
and Egbert Schoonmaker. One of the acts of 
this committee was to .see that merchants did 
not "sell or vend any East India tea." On 
April 19, 1775, occurred the battle of Lexing- 
ton. As fast as messengers could ride the 
news spread over the land. On April 28, a 
call was issued for another Provincial Congress 


to meet in New York May 22. Ulster county 
was represented by seven deputies. On May 
29, this congress resolved that "a general 
association of freeholders and inhabitants be 
fornned, and that the articles thereof be pre- 
sented for signature to every inhabitant before 
July 15, 1775, and on that date those who 
refused, or neglected to sign them be report- 
ed." Ulster county promptly fell in line. 
Articles of Association for the patriots of the 
county were immediately drawn by which the 
signers bound themselves " to mutual defense 
of rights and liberties ; to prosecute measures 
necessary to safety ; to prevent anarchy and 
confusion ; to preserve peace and good order 
and the safety of individuals and private prop- 
erty until a reconciliation between England 
and America, on constitutional principles, can 
be obtained." 

The articles were circulated at once. In the 
whole town of Kingston there were five hun- 
dred and sixty-five signatures and only thirty- 
three refusals. The paper was duly brought 
to Saugerties and circulated. Who the mess- 
engers were is not definitely known at this late 
day. They were probably the three members 
of the General Committee, Johannes Persen 
and Egbert Schoonmaker of the present vil- 
lage of Saugerties and Christian Fiero, of 
Katsbaan. As the names of the signers in 


Saugerties are included among those residing 
elsewhere in the town of Kingston the follow- 
ing list may be only approximately correct. 
But it can not vary greatly. They were 
Barent Burhans, Juren Bear, Adam Bear, 
Johannes Backer, Hendrick Backer, Petrus 
Backer, John Brink, John Brink, Jr., Cornelius 
C Brink, Petrus Brink, Jacob Conyers, George 
Carle, Sampson Davis, Hezekiah DuBois, 
Hezekiah DuBois, Jr., Jacobus DuBois, Lucas 
DeWitt, Jurrie W. Dederick, Jacobus Ded- 
erick, William Dederick, Jr., Matthew Ded- 
erick, Johannes Dederick, Myndert Dederick, 
Frederick Eygenaar, Wilhelmus Emerick, 
Johannes Emerick, Christian Fiero, Christian 
Fiero, Jr., Stephanus Fiero, Hendrick Fiero, 
Hendrick P. Freligh, Peter Freligh, Samuel 
Freligh, John Freligh, Philip Felton, Johan- 
nes Felton, Jacob France, Michael Hoff, 
Martynus Hommel, Jerrie Hommel, Jr., Her- 
manus Hommel, Peter Hommel, Luke Kier- 
stede, Christoffe Kierstede, Cornelius Langen- 
dyke, Luijker Langendyke, Dederick Mauter- 
stock, Adam Mauterstock, Jacob Mauterstock, 
William Mauterstock, Johannes Mauterstock, 
Benjamin Myer, Benjamin Myer, Jr., Hen- 
dricus Myer, Christian Myer, William Myer, 
Petrus Myer, Johannes Myer. Jr., Petrus 
Myer, Jr,, Petrus Low Myer, Tobias Myer, 
Teunis Myer, Stephanus Myer, Jacob Mower, 


Johannes Mower, Jr., Petrus Mower, Leonard 
Mower, Nicholas Mower, John Monk, Har- 
mon Minkelaer, Myndert Mynderse, Arie 
Newkirk, Jan L. Osterhoudt, Abraham Oster- 
houdt, Cornelius Persen, Johannes Persen, 
Jacobus Persen, Abraham Post, Jecobus Post, 
Martynus Post, Jan Post, Isaac Post, Hendrick 
Post, Jurrie W. Rightmyer, Johannes Right- 
myer, Coenradt Rechtmyer, Hermanus Recht- 
myer, Lodewick Russell, Hendrick Snyder, 
Benjamin Snyder, Abraham Snyder, Isaac 
Snyder, Jeremiah Snyder, Martynus Snyder, 
Egbert Schoonmaker, Samuel Schoonmaker, 
Hezekiah DuBois Schoonmaker, Hendrick 
Schoonmaker, Edward Schoonmaker, Tjerck 
Schoonmaker, Jr., Solomon Schutt, Adam 
Short, Petrus Sax, Phillipus Viele, John Val- 
kenburgh, Christian Valkenburgh, Johannes 
Valck, Jr., Wilhelm Valck, Aaronhout Valck, 
Peter Whitaker, Jacobus Whitaker, William 
Whitaker, Barent Whitaker, Johannes Wol- 
ven, Johannes Wolven, Jr., Godfrey Wolven, 
Hendrick Wolven, Jeremiah Wolven, John 
Wolven, Laurence Winne, Peter A. Winne, 
Arent Winne, Benjamin Winne, John Wells, 
Hendricus Wells, Evert Wynkoop, Hezekiah 
Wynkoop, Tobias Wynkoop, Cornelius E. 
Wynkoop, Jurian Young, John Young and 
Jeremiah Young — one hundred and thirty-four 
in all. The only persons in this town who 


refused to sign were Richard Davenport^ 
William Eligh, William Fiero, Abraham Hom- 
mel, Peter Luecks, Josias Minklaer, Johannes 
Plank, Johannes Plank, Jr., Johannes Row, 
Frederick Row, Jr., Johannes Row, Jr , Johan- 
nes Trumpbour, and Nicholas Trumpbour. 
Thus there were but thirteen Tories in its 

The roll of signers of the Articles of Asso- 
ciation has always been esteemed a Roll of 
Honor, and justly so. Almost every man on 
this roll entered the military service during 
the long war unless physically disqualified, or 
too old and feeble. And many who were old 
shouldered the musket as the rosters frequent- 
ly show that fathers and sons served in the 
same regiment. And what is true of the mili- 
tary service is much more true of the above 
Articles. In many instances every man in the 
family signed and grandsire, son and grandson 
pledged themselves to a mutual defense of 
their liberty not only, but to individual peace 
and safety. And through seven long and dis- 
couraging years they nobly kept the faith. 



So far in the progress of events there was no 
purpose of independence. But events were 
moving apace. The Continental Congress as- 
sembled in Philadelphia concluded it would be 
wise to assume the aggressive. The invasion 
of Canada was determined on, and the Provin- 
cial Congress began to make provision for this. 
Among the regiments called was one from 
Ulster county, of which James Clinton was 
made colonel. It was placed in a brigade 
under command of Gen. Montgomery and 
reached Quebec where the latter fell, and the 
expedition returned. 

In August, 1775, an act was passed reorgan- 
izing the militia. In this re-organization Ulster 
county was called upon for four regiments. 
This town was included in the northern, or 
First Ulster, and the command of the regiment 
was given at first to Col. Johannes Harden- 
bergh. The regiment had various vicissitudes, 
and when it was finally organized it entered 
the service under Col. Johannis Snyder, a na- 
tive of this town, then resident of what is now 


Kingston. He was the son of George Snyder, 
a Palatine who came to West Camp with the 
colony of 1710. When this regiment was 
officered, Oct. 25, 1775, the third company was 
under the following officers: Capt. Matthew 
Dederick ; First Lieut. Evert Wynkoop, Jr. ; 
Second Lieut. Petrus Eygenaar and Ensign 
Hendrick Myer. The fourth company was 
officered as follows : Capt. John Lucas DeWitt ; 
First Lieut. Petrus Osterhoudt ; Second Lieut. 
Tobias Myer and Ensign Petrus Brink. 

On May i, 1776, the regiment was reported 
ready. It was under the command of Col. 
Snyder. The company of Capt. DeWitt was 
now numbered the second, and consisted of a 
captain, two lieutenants, one ensign, eight non- 
commissioned officers and fifty privates. This 
company was raised in the south part of the 
present town. The company of Capt. Ded- 
erick, now number four, when the return was 
made had one lieutenant, no ensign, eight non- 
commissioned officers and forty-eight privates. 
This company was raised in Katsbaan and West 
Camp. The company of Capt. Jeremiah Sny- 
der, which was raised in the western part of the 
town did not organize as soon as the others. 

■So far the contest had been resistance to 
tyrannical enactments in the vain hope of re- 
conciliation with the mother country. But 
Parliament had by an act declared the colonies 


in rebellion, had raised troops for its suppres- 
sion and hired mercenary troops in Germany 
for subjugation. So the issue was joined. 

On June 7, 1776, the die was cast. Congress 
that day " Resolved, that these United Col- 
onies are, and of right ought to be, free and 
independent states; that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the British Crown, and 
that all connection between them and the State 
of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally 
dissolved," and appointed a committee to draft 
a Declaration of Independence. 

July 4, 1776, saw the immortal document 
signed. The world knows the result. The 
Provincial Congress of New York had been 
elected in April of that year. It met in May^ 
1779, at White Plains. When the resolution of 
Continental Congress of June 7, was laid before 
it, it was decided that it was of too great mo- 
ment to be acted upon without a reference to 
the people. It was so referred and another 
election ordered. This new body met at 
White Plains July 9, 1776; the action of the 
Continental Congress was laid before it, and 
the same day the Congress at White Plains 
*' Resolved, unanimously, that the reasons as- 
signed by the Continental Congress for declar- 
ing the United Colonies free and independent 
States, are cogent and conclusive ; and while 
we lament the cruel necessity, which has ren- 


dered that measure unavoidable, we approve 
the same, and will at the risk of our lives and 
fortunes, join with the other colonies in sup- 
porting it." Messengers were sent through the 
colony to publish the declaration and the reso- 
lutions of approval, and the strife was on. 

The writer has been permitted to make use 
of a diary in the handwriting of Christopher 
Tappen, of Kingston, now in possession of 
Mrs. William Mould, of the village of Sau- 
gerties. Mr. Tappen was a brother-in-law of 
Governor George Clinton, and was one of the 
delegates to the above congress, at White 
Plains. His diary begins with his journey 
from Kingston to that village at the session 
spoken of, on July 9, 1776, and is concluded on 
the 25th of the following January. It gives 
an inside history of the times and reveals the 
petty envies and jealousies which then, as 
now, mar human actions even when the 
motives are the most patriotic and Christian. 
Human nature is ever human nature. The 
writer has condensed the diary, and added 
explanations in parentheses. 

Mr. Tappen writes: I set out on horseback 
from Kingston on July 9 to go to the Provin- 
cial Congress of New York, to be convened at 
White Plains; crossed the Hudson and put up 
at Poughkeepsie. I was there informed that 
Congress had removed to Harlem. My asso- 


ciates Colonel (Levi) Pawling, Colonel (Charles) 
DeWitt, and Mr. (Matthew) Cantine, agreed 
to cross again to the west side of the river, so 
as to leave our horses in the English Neigh- 
borhood. (This is in the vicinity and north- 
west of Nyack.) On Friday, the I2th we 
arrived at Burdett's Ferry, (the ferry between 
Nyack and Tarrytown). Soon before we 
arrived a firing of cannon being heard by us 
we made all the haste possible to the ferry to 
know the cause thereof. When we came 
there two men-of-war, one schooner and two 
tenders were discovered standing up the river. 
We applied to the ferrymen to put us over, 
who were unwilling. This gave us an oppor- 
tunity to see the firing of Mount Washington 
on the shipping. We arrived in New York on 
Saturday and were informed that Congress 
was sitting at White Plains. Returned to 
Burdett's on the Sabbath. 

On Monday we crossed the ferry and 
arrived at White Plains at 4 p. m., when we 
went to Congress and delivered in our creden- 

Tuesday, 16 July, 8 o'clock p. m. : — By a 
motion of Mr. Robert Yates, Mr. Robert R. 
Livingston, Mr. John Jay, Mr. Gilbert Living- 
ston, Mr. Paulding and myself were appointed 
a secret committee for the purpose of obstruct- 
ing the channel, or annoying the enemy's 


ships in their navigation of the Hudson. On 
the next day set out on the business and 
lodged at one Purdy's, near Croton's river. 
At six in the morning of Thursday we went to 
Peekskill where we waited for Messrs. Jay and 
R. R. Livingston who arrived at 4 p. m. Just 
then the ship Rose, commanded by Captain 
Wallace, and her tender came up and anchor- 
ed near the Donderberg. Soon after the 
tender barge went to the west shore in order 
to pilferage the inhabitants there, but being 
disappointed by a couple of our men who lay 
in ambush and fired on them they returned to 
the tender, when the captain of the ship and 
four or five of the barges went ashore, killed 
five or six poor hogs, and set fire to the dwel- 
ling of one Holstead, which consumed in a 
few minutes. 

Friday morning we went to Fort Montgom- 
ery in order to consult with General Clinton, 
Colonel Clinton and Captain Bedlow and 
lodged there that night. On Saturday Gen- 
eral Clinton informed us that he had been to 
view a high point of land on the south side of 
Poop Loop's Kill, which he was of the opinion 
ought to be fortified, and insisted that we 
should go with him to view the spot, which we 
did, and advised him to fortify it ; then we 
proceeded to Fort Constitution, from whence 
Gilbert Livingston and I went to Poughkeepsie, 


On Sabbath Day we met with Captain Law- 
rence, and Tudor and Jacob VanZandt and 
divided our business into several departments 
and gave instructions for that purpose. The 
next day I received from Gilbert Livingston 
the sum of 223 pounds, 14 shillings and 8 
pence to execute part of my instructions 
and set forth for Kingston. On Tuesday I 
employed several blacksmiths to make she- 
vaux, etc. (A chevaux de-frise, or Friesland 
horse, is a heavy boom of timber traversed 
with large iron bars about six feet in length, 
and sharpened to a point. This boom was 
stretched across the Hudson at Polopel's 
Island, but had no forts or earthworks for its 
protection at either end. A heavy chain was 
also welded, and was stretched across the 
Hudson at West Point, the construction of 
which by this committee will be told in the 
next chapter. Forts Montgomery, Clinton 
and Constitution, prevented its removal until 
they were reduced in the autumn of the next 
year, 1777.) 



The Tappen diary continues: Wednesday, 
July 25th, 1776 — went to Sawgertjes ; pur- 
chased a sloop of Benjamin Snyder, when Mr. 
White came up with me and delivered me a 
letter of Robert R. Livingston. 

Thursday, 26th. — Purchased Low's sloop for 
170 pounds; also pitch, tar and dry wood. 
After dinner went to the landing (Rondout) to 
order the materials on board of said sloop and 
buy some cannons. Mr. White came over with 
a letter from Mr. Yates on the subject that 
Mr. Livingston wrote to me about the day 
before, and applied to me for an order to im- 
press teams, which I gave him. Also desired 
me to provide him with twenty axe men the 
next day to fell and hew timber at ten miles 
. up the river. I understood that the ofificers of 
the First Regiment were convened at the sign 
of The Indian King in order to agree upon a 
set of officers for the regiment, to be raised 
under the command of Colonel (Levi) Pawling. 
Think as the militia were to train in a few 
days, that if I was to send out any men um- 


brage would be taken. I went over to where 
the officers were assembled. Requested of the 
landlord to call out Col. (Johannis) Snyder, to 
whom I applied for twenty men of his militia; 
showed him my papers, of which he demanded 
a copy, an extract of which I made with my 
request at the foot thereof and carried into the 
room where he and a number of other gentle- 
men were sitting, delivered it to the colonel, 
who laid it down on the table. Major (Adrian) 
Wynkoop took it up and read it, when Major 
(Philip) Hooghteling took it up to read, when 
I withdrew from the room in order to wait for 
an answer, and went about some other busi- 
ness in the meantime. In about an hour there- 
after waited upon the colonel, found the door 
open, seeing him engaged upon some other 
business with other people stepped back to the 
stoop at the door and sat down. Addressed 
myself to Major Hooghteling by asking whether 
they had fixed their officers. He answered me 
in a surly tone, "What do I know? — the 
Congress. Why have they not done it?" I 
answered "The Congress have done a part 
and left the other for you to do." To which 
he replied : " I do not know what you do 
there. I could send my negro Jug there and 
he would do as much as you all could." I 
asked the occasion of that affront. He replied : 
"You are a scoundrel." I told him "You talk 


like a fool." Whereupon he gave me a back- 
handed stroke in the face which in a manner 
stunned me. However, I raised myself from 
the seat. He was ready for the second blow 
which I defended, took hold of him, and laid 
him over the stoop, when another person at his 
back gave him a lift, or push, so as to send me 
to the opposite side, he on me. I tumbled 
him from me, but he, taking me in the hair 
twisted my neck so as to have an advantage to 
strike me in the face. I defended every stroke 
until some persons took hold of the arms. I 
had to defend them when he beat me to such 
a degree that I was blind for twenty hours in 
one eye and but for a dim glimmer out of the 
other, which brought on a slow, weak fever so 
as to disable me for any business for eight 
days. On Friday, the next day, sent an ex- 
press to Sawgertjes to know how the works 
were going on, and received a letter from Mr. 
White. On Saturday Egbert DuMond was 
kind enough to go to the landing to take 
account of the things sent on board of Low's 

On Sunday I sent an express for Mr. Liv- 
ingston to Poughkeepsie, and Monday evening 
Messrs. Livingston and Paulding came to my 
house where we consulted upon the business 
in my department and issued orders for this 


By Wednesday, July 31st, my face and eyes 
were much better, but having great pains in 
my breast and stomach I was not able to go 
out. On Saturday, August 3rd, I went to the 
landing (Rondout) to buy canoes. Various 
minor matters occupied me until Friday, the 
9th, when I attended Capt. Hazewood at the 
fire vessels and superintended the works. At 
nine in the evening set out for Fort Montgom- 
ery to examine the state of the provisions of 
which great complaints are made, and to bring 
up one of the fire vessels from thence. We 
arrived there at eight in the morning of Satur- 
day and found Gen. Clinton's brigade on the 
march to a post on the north side of Kings 
Bridge. Went to examine new forts and or- 
dered the fire ship off. We set out on Sunday 
from Fort Montgomery to Fort Clinton where 
we dined. After dinner we went to Pough- 
keepsie which we reached at ten. 

On Monday, August 12th, went to the ship- 
yard and ordered sundry things and after din- 
ner formed a committee at Mr. Poole's. By 
order of this committee we went next day to 
John Schenck's and marked four hogsheads of 
West India rum belonging to one Franklin, as 
Mr. Schenck says, and consigned to one Mab- 
bett, and that he has no particular orders to 
sell it. As Messrs. Jay and Yates had import- 
ant business at home they requested leave of 


absence. They departed leaving instructions 
to Mr. Livingston and me how to proceed in 
the meantime. I obtained leave on Saturday 
to go home and took with me money to pay 
accounts. On Monday I hired men to go to 
Poughkeepsie to bring three canoes there. 
Tuesday I went to Poughkeepsie and settled 
accounts and Wednesday wrote a letter to Mr. 
Yates concerning cannon. Went down to 
Davis' where the carpenters are at work upon 
logs for the chain. Next day I wrote a letter 
to the chairman of Kingston for ten or twelve 
carpenters to work upon the locks. They ar- 
rived to-day. I purchased a canoe of Capt. 
Hughes. On Friday put carpenters to work, 
and blacksmiths also. In the afternoon took 
some iron in a sloop to have it forged in Kings- 
ton. Mr. Livingston and I conveyed it there 
Saturday. I engaged Abram VanKeuren to 
work on the iron in making the chain. I re- 
turned to Poughkeepsie on Sunday and the 
next day inspected the fire vessels. Returned 
to Kingston on Saturday and back to Pough- 
keepsie on Monday, September 1st. As none 
of the committee came back to Poughkeepsie 
by Tuesday I resolved to go to the Congress 
in order to inform them of the state of our 
business. I reached Fishkill, where Congress 
was sitting, by ten on Wednesday. Next day 
I was taken sick with a fever. Although very 


sick on Friday Mr. (Charles) DeWitt informed 
me that no session of Congress could be held 
unless I attended. This I did. I remained 
very-sick until the next Wednesday, when feel- 
ing somewhat better I concluded to go to Mr. 
Clinton's (Gov. George Clinton's). I hired 
Capt. Jackson's sloop to bring me up. The 
next day I arrived home. I did not return to 
Congress until Monday, December 9th, when I 
set out for Fishkill, where it was sitting, in 
company with Col. DeWitt. (The remain- 
ing entries in the diary are unimportant and 
cease altogether on Saturday, January 25th, 

The above journal establishes the fact that 

the heavy impeding chain built to prevent the 
ascent of the Hudson by the British was made 
in Kingston. Links of this chain are still to be 
seen at West Point, and at Newburgh. The 
boom was made by carpenters at Poughkeepsie 
and the fire ships bought at Saugerties and 

And it shows the unfortunate jealousy exist- 
ing all through the war between Congress and 
the army. This hampered the movements of 
Washington from year to year and caused 
constant insubordination. Cliques and cabals 
which were governed by political reasons, or 
envious ones, constantly interfered with mili- 
tary plans, changing leaders and depriving 


armies of necessary men and equipment for 
political reasons, if not for worse. 

Major Philip Hooghteling served as such in 
the First Ulster Regiment, which was raised in 
Kingston and Saugerties. The Third Ulster, 
spoken of as Col. Pawling's, was raised in the 
valleys of the Rondout and the Wallkill. The 
journal shows how an effort was made to secure 
enlistments from the above town also. It is 
certainly a tribute to the patriotism of Kings- 
ton and Saugerties that such a call was made 
by the Third, as the Fourth Ulster was largely 
a Saugerties and Kingston regiment. We can 
understand the opposition of the First to the 
application, if we cannot excuse it. 



In the chapter which preceded the last the 
writer narrated the story of the organization 
of the militia of the town, and especially of 
the First Ulster Regiment, in which the great 
majority of Saugerties men served. As there 
stated, it was reported to be ready on May i, 
1776, and under the command of Colonel 
Johannis Snyder, of Kingston, a native of 
Saugerties. The captains of the three Sau- 
gerties companies were Matthew Dederick, 
John Lucas DeWitt and Jeremiah Snyder. 
On July 4th the colonies were declared to be 
" Free and Independent States." Five days 
after, on July 9th, this action of Congress was 
ratified by the State of New York, and on the 
sixteenth of the same month the New York 
Convention resolved that one-fourth part of 
the militia of the counties of Westchester, 
Dutchess, Orange and Ulster be forthwith 
drawn out for the defense of the liberties, 
property, wives and children of the good 
people of this State. Then a resolution was 
passed urging those who remained at home to 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1776. 141 

render all necessary assistance to the families 
of those who enlisted, and another directing 
that all the men raised in the counties of 
Ulster and Orange be stationed in the High- 
lands on the west side of the river, to guard 
those defiles, the possession of which Briga- 
dier-General George Clinton shall think most 
conducive to the safety of the State. The 
convention at the same time asked General 
Washington to appoint an ofificer to take 
command of all the levies on both sides of the 
river. Washington, having no one to spare, 
and having such confidence in Clinton that he 
deemed him the most suitable, nominated him 
to the command. This nomination the con- 
vention approved, a levy of one-fourth of the 
militia was made and Colonel Johannis Snyder 
called his regiment together to fill the quota 

We are not concerned here with the dififi- 
culties met in filling this quota which arose 
over the services of a troop of horse attached 
to the regiment, etc., but must sketch the ser- 
vice rendered so far as concerns Saugerties 

Meanwhile the Fourth Ulster, under Col- 
onel Johannes Hardenbergh, in which were 
many from this town had gone to New York 
to aid in the defense of that city by Washing- 
ton. On August 9th the colonel complained 


to the State Convention of the destitute con- 
dition of the troops, and asked a supply say- 
ing, that his men were even willing to have 
the funds to purchase supplies deducted from 
their pay. The convention immediately order- 
ed the supplies furnished on those conditions. 
This is worth noting to show the ardent 
patriotism of those who fought to secure our 

Through all the disastrous campaign of 1776 
which ended in the loss of the city of New 
York, Ulster county carried her full share. 
And while so many of her sons were fighting 
on Long Island one-quarter of those remaining 
at home were drafted for service in the passes 
of the Highlands. But arms were scarce for 
their equipment and it was determined to arm 
only those who were drawn for immediate ser- 
vice, and equip the remainder with lances. 
This exhibits the straits in which the patriots 
were placed. 

Colonel Johannis Snyder proceeded to the 
Highlands to command the levies reaching 
there October 18, 1776. He found an order 
issued eight days before to detach three hun- 
dred men of his command, well armed, with 
three days' provisions, to proceed to Peekskill 
to continue in service three weeks. And on 
the 13th the field officers of the First Regi- 
ment had selected Major Adrian Wynkoop, of 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1776. 143 

that regiment to take command of the detach- 

On November 3d the Committee of Safety- 
ordered the militia of Orange and Ulster coun- 
ties to hold themselves in readiness at a 
moment's warning to oppose the invasion of 
the British on the west side of the Hudson. 
But the British made no attempt upon the 
passage during the remainder of 1776 after the 
capture of New York and confined their 
operations to a campaign in New Jersey. The 
coming of winter and the freezing over of the 
Hudson released most of the militia to their 
homes, and Colonel Snyder's regiment all 
returned as its term of service expired. 

To understand this it is well to look for a 
moment at the constitution of the military 
forces. There were three classes of these. 
The first was the Line, as it was called, which 
would be called to-day the regular army, but 
in those days came to be denominated "The 
Continentals." These regiments were under 
the direct command of General Washington as 

The second branch was the Levies. These 
were drawn from the militia regiments and 
sometimes by a direct draft upon the people 
for a specified term, and they could be com- 
pelled to serve outside of the state during 
their entire term of service. 


The last class was the Militia. They could 
then, as now, be called to render service out- 
side of the state for three months only at a 
time. " Every foot soldier must provide him- 
self and appear and muster with a good, well- 
fixed musket, or fusee, a good sword, belt and 
cartridge-box, six cartridges of powder, a horn 
and six sizable bullets, a flint, a blanket," and 
sometimes a tomahawk. For want of these 
articles a fine of twenty shillings and prison 
charges was imposed until the fine was paid. 
At his discretion the captain was allowed and 
authorized to sell the delinquent's goods. " In 
case the offender be unable, or refuse to pay^ 
and he have no goods to distress, he shall ride 
the wooden horse, or be laid by the neck and 
heels in a public place for not to exceed an 

The militia were called out when they were 
needed and kept as long as needed, and then 
permitted to return to their homes subject to 
another call. Sometimes a whole regiment 
would be called out for many months at a 
time, sometimes for but a few days, and this 
frequently during several months; and some- 
times no call would come for a whole year. 
Sometimes a whole regiment would be called ; 
sometimes one company; sometimes twenty 
or twenty-five men. Thus the same men 
might serve in two or three companies in 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1776. 145 

the same year and even in two or three regi- 

The counties were divided into districts, 
and each district placed under a colonel who 
was to see that every man liable was enrolled. 
Quakers, Moravians and United Brethren were 
enrolled, but could be exempt from actual ser- 
vice by paying an exemption fee. Towards 
the end of the Revolution this was one hun- 
dred pounds (New York currency), or $400 per 
year. One miller to each grist mill, three 
powder makers to each powder mill, five iron 
makers to each furnace, three journeymen to 
each printing ofifice and one ferryman to each 
public ferry were 

Four times a year the militia must meet for 
training in specified localities and once a year 
a general training day was ordered for "all 
the soldiers within the government." All 
males between the ages of sixteen and fifty 
were liable for military duty and, in case of 
invasion, all between fifteen and sixty. Cases 
did arise where they were called out, if able- 
bodied, up to seventy. 

The pay of a private was but %6.66 per 
month and this not always in money, and if so 
often in money not current. He was also 
allowed one pound of sugar, two ounces of tea 
and one pound of tobacco a month besides his 
subsistence. If a slave enlisted and served 



three years, or until discharged, he became a 
freeman. Thus the opening of the New Year 
(1777), which was to witness the most severe 
call ever made upon the patriotism and ener- 
gies of this town, found almost every man and 
boy of its population who would carry a gun 
under arms. 



The year 1777 was dark and discouraging as 
it opened upon the American cause. Wash- 
ington had been driven out of New York and 
across New Jersey, and though he had won a 
notable success at Trenton on Christmas, the 
patriotic sky was gloomy. The invasion of 
New York from Canada had not taken place 
and Burgoyne had retired to winter his troops 
in Canada, yet it was known that the advance 
would be made the following summer, and it 
was expected in force. From whence would 
the patriots obtain troops? Those inured to 
war were with Washington in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania and few but the militia were 

All through the winter of i'jy6-'/ prepara- 
tions were going on. All over the valley of 
the Hudson and in New England lead was 
being run into bullet moulds and powder was 
made in small quantities everywhere. The 
militia constantly drilled, as never before, and 
at every store and church the discussion of 
their rights and wrongs and of means of resist- 


ance was carried on. In the town of Sauger- 
ties the great places for discussion and debate 
were the store of Corneh'us Persen, in Kats- 
baan, and the inn of Abraham Post, in what is 
now the village of Saugerties. But not alone 
here. In groups around the two churches in 
town, the one in Katsbaan and that at West 
Camp, successive Sundays heard the ceaseless 
story of the injustice of Great Britain and the 
determination to win the fight for liberty. 
Rev. George Wilhelmus Mancius, the pastor 
at Katsbaan, had died in 1762 and the next 
one to serve was Rev. Lambertus DeRonde, 
who did not come until 1780. But in these 
intervening eighteen years the people were 
regularly supplied by the pastors of Albany, 
Kingston and Catskill, now Leeds. All three 
of these were ardent patriots. But no one more 
fervently so than the pastor of the last named 
church, Rev. Johannes Schuneman. His father 
had been one of the Palatines of the West 
Camp colony in 1710, and the son had entered 
the ministry of the Reformed Church. Where- 
ever he went he was on fire for liberty. Whether 
he led his people in worship at Leeds, or Cox- 
sackie, or whether he came to Katsbaan for 
Sabbath service his messages from the pulpit 
were not only those of religion, but the claims 
of patriotism and liberty. So his frequent 
visits to Katsbaan were occasions for the en- 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777. 149 

kindling of a spirit of determined effort to 
achieve the independence of America from the 
control of Great Britain forever. He is the 
hero in a story very popular fifty or sixty years 
ago entitled " The Dutch Domine of the Cats- 
kills." So the year 1777, though gloomy as 
the opening months passed, found the people 
of Saugerties never so determined to win as 

For the campaign Lord Howe asked of the 
British government a force of 50,000 men to 
cut the united colonies in two along the line of 
Lake Champlain and the Hudson river. To 
this end a powerful army was to come down 
from Canada to meet a force proceeding up 
the Hudson from New York. What was to 
resist this? New York State was then nothing 
more than Long Island with the valleys of the 
Hudson and the Mohawk, The opposition to 
Burgoyne and St. Leger would demand every 
soldier from the Mohawk and the Upper Hud- 
son. The Lower Hudson and Long Island 
troops were with Washington in New Jersey. 
So the defense of the Highlands devolved 
upon the counties of Orange, Ulster, Dutchess 
and a part of Westchester. Once more the 
First Ulster took the field under Col. Snyder 
and went to the support of Gen. George Clin- 
ton. To show their entire confidence in Clin- 
ton the State convention passed resolutions 


authorizing him to call out the whole, or any 
part of the militia whenever he deemed it nec- 
essary, and station them where he deemed best, 
and gave him power to impress carriages, 
horses, teams, boats and vessels whenever he 
deemed it necessary. For these he was author- 
ized to draw on the convention for payment. 
Nor were these extraordinary powers ever 
abused. Faithfully and well did Clinton meet 
the expectations of his people, and when in 
the following July the new State of New York 
was constituted, George Clinton was elected by 
the people to the ofifices both of governor and 
lieutenant-governor. He declined the latter 
office and, by successive re-elections they con- 
tinued him in the former for twenty-one years. 
We cannot narrate nor review the campaign 
of this eventful year. During the whole sum- 
mer the most of the First Ulster Regiment was 
with Clinton in the Highlands. Those were 
despondent days. Over all hung the cloud of 
Burgoyne's advance from Canada, and in July 
it became a fact. Schuyler had not the troops 
to put up a defense. But the axe of the wood- 
man preceded the advance of the enemy and 
every step onward from Lake Champlain was 
obstructed by the felling of trees and the de- 
struction of bridges, etc., so that it took him 
twenty-four days to march twenty-six miles. 
Meanwhile Schuyler was calling on Gov. Clin- 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777. 151 

ton for reinforcements. If sent they could be 
only those of Ulster and Dutchess counties, 
and every man was needed for the defense of 
the Highlands. At last Clinton determined 
that the progress of Burgoyne must be stopped 
at all hazards and any cost and directed that 
the militia of the north end of Ulster and 
Dutchess counties be sent. They were placed 
under the command of Gen. Peter TenBroeck, 
of Dutchess, who resided opposite to Sauger- 
ties, on the Hudson. 

Every able-bodied man was summoned to go 
to the relief of Schuyler. Down to fifty years 
ago tradition in the town had many tales of 
the events of the march. Many were afoot, a 
few drove wagons carrying members of the 
family and neighbors, and some were on horse- 
back. One of these traditions gives the fol- 
lowing incidents : Tobias Wynkoop was con- 
stantly urging a more rapid march and when 
they reached a spot from whence the cannon- 
ading could be heard he became excited 
over the possibility that the battle would be 
over and he not obtain a shot at the redcoats 
and Hessians. Ephraim Myer begged his 
father for permission to go along. His father 
told him he was too young to carry a musket. 
But at last the lad's entreaties prevailed and 
the father consented that he take his fife, as he 
was a skilful player. And the martial strains 


of this were very effective in summoning the 
patriot farmers to follow upon horseback and 
even on foot. Before they had proceeded 
many miles enough had gathered for two com- 
panies and they were thus mustered. But 
arriving at Saratoga the musician quickly 
exchanged his fife for a musket. 

One company was in charge of Orderly Ser- 
geant Cornelius Wells, but arrived too late for 
much active service and was detailed to 
gather the wounded, and the wagon which 
Christian Myer had driven up became of great 
service as an ambulance. The orders for 
gathering the wounded were that they must 
first relieve those less severely injured and 
leave those mortally hurt until the last. One 
man was found seemingly dying, if not already 
dead. They rolled him over and left him. 
But before they had gone far the wounded 
man arose and followed them exhibiting a 
severe wound in his head which had stunned 
him. This ambulance wagon was one belong- 
ing to William Myer, who resided on the Ger- 
mond place in this town. The wagon, in 
charge of his sons. Christian and Johannes, 
had conve^^ed many of the neighbors to Sara- 
toga before it was thus detailed. When the 
militia returned Burgoyne is said to have 
ridden to Albany with the Myer brothers, and 
the wagon was ever preserved in the family on 


THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777. 153 

this place, and afterwards in that of Hendrick 
Myer at Brabant, and is now in the Senate 
House in Kingston. 

But this anticipates. In the meantime the 
summer had almost passed. Re-enforcements 
had begun to reach Schuyler. General Herki- 
mer, the brave Palatine leader along the 
Mohawk, had fought and fallen in the bloody 
battle of Oriskany, but had stopped St. Leger 
and his Indians from joining Burgoyne. The 
battle of Bennington had been fought and 
won and on September 19th the two armies 
had met and the British advance had been 
checked by the first battle of Stillwater. For 
eighteen days there was no further movement. 
But all this time the Americans were stripping 
the surrounding region of all supplies. The 
action of the 19th was hailed with joy every- 
where and the militia flocked to Saratoga. It 
is at this point that those of our town enter 
the scene and at the end of these eighteen 
days they were a part of two thousand men 
who appeared under the command of General 
Peter TenBroeck. 

On the 7th of October occurred the second 
battle of Stillwater, or Bemus Heights. Here 
our Saugerties militia were in the thickest of 
the fight in the attack upon the British centre, 
while the British right was being broken by 
the vigorous charge of Morgan's Virginia rifle- 


men and the innpetuosity of Benedict Arnold. 
This really ended the campaign and brought 
about Burgoyne's surrender ten days after. 

His army was marched across New Eng- 
land, while Burgoyne was brought a prisoner 
of war to Albany. General Schuyler had 
entertained the captive general with honors 
befitting his rank at his country home near 
Saratoga, and invited him to dine with him and 
Mrs. Schuyler at their residence in Albany. 
Burgoyne wrote home of the gentlemanly 
courtesy and hospitality of Schuyler, and was 
ever after a friend of America in the British 

Tradition has always held that upon the 
return of the Saugerties troops from Saratoga 
they were given a welcome by barbecue at 
Asbury as they crossed the county line into 
Ulster, and were then escorted as they came 
down the Old Kings Road through the town. 

Meanwhile the First Ulster Regiment, as 
an organization, was with Colonel Johannis 
Snyder defending the Hudson Highlands. 
The British left New York on October 3d by 
land and water. Following a circuitous route 
around the Donderberg their forces reached 
Forts Montgomery and Clinton by the rear. 
They were built for defense against a fleet and 
had but little to oppose on the landward side 
with the handful of troops under Governor 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777. 155 

Clinton. On the afternoon of the sixth the 
British appeared and carried both forts by 
assault. Governor George Clinton escaped by 
sliding down a precipice and crossed the river 
in a small boat, while General James Clinton 
escaped to the woods. Two hundred and fifty 
patriots surrendered and their losses in killed 
were about one hundred, while the British lost 
three hundred killed. 

When the chain and chevaux-de-frise had 
been forced the enemy proceeded up the river, 
and on the i6th burned Kingston. The next 
day they reached Saugerties and burned the 
buildings of General Peter TenBroeck and the 
Livingstons on the east side of the river. On 
the 22d they continued their devastations on 
the west side at Saugerties where they set fire 
to *'two houses with barns and appendages," 
one of which was on the place of John G. 
Myers. Next day they burned a sloop in the 
creek and one on the ways here. It is said 
that armed troops visited the house now 
owned by Mrs. Frank Pidgeon foraging, but 
did not set fire to the buildings. Then hear- 
ing of the surrender of Burgoyne, they came 
about and returned to New York. This prac- 
tically closed the campaign of 1777 so far as 
the Hudson valley was concerned. 



The bloody battle of Oriskany, fought on 
August 4, 1777, which cost the life of the noble 
old Palatine, Gen. Herkimer and the lives of 
one-fourth of his command admirably suc- 
ceeded in its purpose. Not only was St. Leger 
and his Iroquois Indians prevented from mak- 
ing a junction with Burgoyne, not only was 
the Mohawk Valley saved from conquest, but 
the Indians were taught a lesson which they 
never forgot. Hereafter it was impossible for 
the British to raise an Indian army for allies. 

But there was one sad result. The wives 
and families of the settlers in exposed places 
on the frontiers were open to the vengeance of 
skulking foes. At Oriskany more than one 
hundred Indian warriors had fallen under the 
muskets of frontiersmen and the tribes were 
thirsting for scalps in revenge. For this the 
scalp of a woman or a child would satisfy 
where none other could be obtained. And 
during the summer of 1778 exposed buildings 
everywhere were burned and the tomahawk 
dripped with the blood of defenceless women 

THE CAMPAIGNS OF 17^8 AND 1779. 1 57 

and children. Toward this hostility they were 
skilfully cultivated by Sir John Johnson and 
other leading Tories. 

These savages were led by two ferocious 
Tories, John Butler and his son Walter, and by 
the celebrated Mohawk chief, Joseph Brant. 
Brant had been educated among the whites 
and to his savage nature was added a culti- 
vated mind. He has been held responsible for 
the atrocities committed by the Indians after 
the battle of Oriskany, but later historians 
have rescued his memory from undeserved 
obloquy. He opposed the bloody acts of his 
savage brethren, but they were led by two 
fiends in human shape, the Butlers, and wher- 
ever they appeared destruction and death 
marked their track. The warfare Brant would 
have conducted would have been as devastat- 
ing as that of Sheridan in the valley of the 
Shenandoah, but he opposed the bloodthirsti- 
ness of his Indian brethren and their more 
savage leaders, the Butlers. From July to No- 
vember, 1778, they carried on a merciless war- 
fare from the valley of the Susquehanna north- 
ward. Whole settlements were given to the 
flames and from gray-haired women to infants 
in the cradle no mercy to age nor sex was 
shown. Only to mention the names of Wyom- 
ing and Cherry Valley is to call to mind the 
horrors of Indian warfare. These massacres 


were in June and November of that year. The 
latter name recalls as well the cultivation and 
refinement which marked that village as its de- 
votion to the patriotic cause. This warfare 
was not confined to New York aud Pennsyl- 
vania. The tribes of Kentucky were then 
bitterly at war with Daniel Boone. The battle 
of Vincennes was that year fought with the 
Indians of Indiana. Readers of "Alice of Old 
Vincennes" will recall this story. 

The British during that year made an expe- 
dition up the Hudson and captured Stony 
Point. Washington threw a force into West 
Point and sent " Mad Anthony" Wayne to re- 
capture Stony Point in which effort he was 
dashingly successful. The writer is not able 
to establish it as a fact, but there seems evi- 
dence that Col. Snyder, with some of his regi- 
ment was stationed at West Point at this time. 

During all these months of 1778, the fron- 
tiers of Ulster were menaced by bands of 
prowling Indians, with their often more savage 
Tory allies. In the autumn of this year, Brant 
appeared along the Ulster frontier carrying 
dismay and death. He ravaged along the 
mountain border of the town of Saugerties and 
through the Rondout valley. 

In 1779, Brant made another raid and the 
scene this time was in the vicinity of Goshen, 
near where the bloody battle of the Minisink 

THE CAMPAIGNS OF 1778 AND 1779. 1 59 

was fought. Washington determined to stop 
these raids, and committed the task to Gen. 
Sullivan, for whom Sullivan couniy is named. 
The expedition consisted of four brigades, in 
one of which were four New York regiments, 
containing many Ulster county men. On May 
4, 1779, they struck camp at Wawarsing under 
orders to march to Wyoming. He found Brant 
marauding at Fantine Kill, six miles distant. 
On his approach, Brant with one hundred and 
fifty men fled to the mountains. About fifteen 
people of Ulster county had been massacred 
by these Indians before Brant was driven away. 

Gen. Sullivan was thorough in his work. In 
three weeks he had succeeded in completely 
subduing the tribes of hostile Indians, and so 
effectively taught the lesson, that they sued 
for peace and promised to bury the hatchet. 
From this time the Indian warfare was confined 
to predatory bands until the close of the war. 
They were only outcasts of the various tribes 
led by those more bloodthirsty allies, the con- 
temptible Tory degenerates. 

It is impossible to detach from this general 
account the part taken by Saugerties men. 
Under officers from different companies they 
were in constant service. Different detach- 
ments were out at different times watching the 
frontiers and scouting in the mountains of 
Ulster and Delaware counties. 


Some time during this year of 1779 Capt. 
Jeremiah Snyder, who resided at Blue Moun- 
tain, with his son Elias, and three others were 
scouting along the Catskills watching some 
prowling Tories when Capt. Snyder and An- 
thony Van Schaick became detached from the 
rest of the party. As they were cautiously 
passing through the dense woods and under 
the brow of a cliff they were suddenly startled 
by the discharge of musketry and five bullets 
struck the rocks and earth near the captain. 
They looked up and saw the enemy on the 
cliff who ordered them to surrender. Their 
muskets were discharged and then they ran for 
their lives. Thirteen shots were fired at them^ 
but they escaped unhurt. 

There is in existence a pay-roll of a party of 
Saugerties men of Johannis Snyder's regiment 
who were under the command of Lieut. Peter 
Post, of Saugerties, who scouted for one month 
from April 3d to May 3d, 1779, along the east- 
ern base of the Catskills. When their service 
was up Lieut. Post stopped on his way home 
to stay over night with a friend, a Mr. Wolven, 
who lived near Pine Grove on what has been 
known as the William H. Cunyes farm. After 
he had retired for the night a party of Tories 
and Indians surrounded the house and carried 
him ofT a prisoner to the mountains where he 
was detained for five days. Then he was 

THE CAMPAIGNS OF 1778 AND 1779. 1 6 1 

stripped of his uniform and released upon giv- 
ing his parole. 

The Rev. Dr. Anson DuBois is the authority 
for the following : 

One Sunday morning during these years two 
families from Woodstock came to Katsbaan 
church to service. Each family brought a babe 
for baptism. There was a Tory at church who 
quietly slipped out before the close of service. 
When these two families were returning home, 
and were just above Unionville, they suddenly 
found themselves surrounded by Indians whom 
the Tory had put on their track. The men 
were made prisoners and the women and chil- 
dren left sitting in the wagon to get home the 
best way they could. The Sunday hat of one 
of the men was seized by an Indian who clapped 
it on his head and danced about the frightened 
women with wild grimaces. 

The activity of Brant and his Tories and 
Indians along the Catskills kept the whole 
community excited. The Tories were partic- 
ularly embittered because the store of Cornelius 
Persen in Katsbaan had been for years the 
meeting place of the patriots and on one of the 
raids of Brant it had been determined to seize 
Cornelius Persen. A friendly Indian named 
Nachte Jan (Night John) whose wigwam was 
on Persen's land and who felt indebted to 
Persen informed him of the scheme and Persen 


left home every night while his patriotic neigh- 
bors watched with him his house and store 
from points in the adjacent woods and fields. 
The blow of Sullivan relieved the situation. 

With the close of 1779 the demand for active 
service upon the men of this town practically 
ceased. There were a few calls for short serv- 
ice, and many of the militia had enlisted either 
in the Continentals, or were serving in the 
Levies. But the militia had almost no sum- 
mons thereafter. 



During the war of the Revolution the 
Reformed Dutch Church of Kingston had as 
its pastor the Rev. George J. L. Doll. He 
was an earnest preacher, but a still more 
earnest patriot. His pulpit often rang with 
notes less suggestive of the gospel of peace 
which in less stirring times he delighted to 
preach than of a summons to arms. Many an 
ardent exhortation fell from his lips to the 
struggle for civil liberty and the rights of free- 
men which was then on. 

In the earlier years of the war the church of 
Katsbaan had no settled pastor. But the 
pulpit was pretty regularly supplied by Dom- 
ine Doll and by the Rev. Eilardus Westerlo, 
of Albany. Both of these men were full of 
the patriotic spirit and earnest in advocacy of 
the cause. But the preacher who more fre- 
quently than the others supplied that pulpit 
was one who was a veritable Boanerges, a son 
of thunder. He was the Rev. Johannes Schu- 
neman, of Coxsackie and Catskill, now Leeds. 
His father was one of the Palatines who 


settled in West Camp in 17 lo where the dom- 
ine was born. 

The year 1780 was comparatively a quiet 
one in the Hudson river valley. This was the 
year of Arnold's attempt to betray West 
Point, but the region about Saugerties was in 
comparative peace. Domine Schuneman con- 
tinued to come down to Katsbaan to supply 
the pulpit. And just here a fuller tribute to 
this patriot should be given. He lived, as a 
former chapter said, at what is now Leeds. 
Between there and Katsbaan church is a 
distance of ten miles and at that time it was 
largely wooded and much of it a dense forest. 
He was intensely hated by the Tories because 
of his ardent patriotism. And he hated the 
enemies of his country and never lost an 
opportunity to denounce them. From Leeds 
to his other charge at Coxsackie was a dis- 
tance of twelve miles and much of this way 
too was along a forest road. But the domine 
feared nothing but his God. No foe lived 
who had any terror for him. He was short 
and corpulent and was marked with the small- 
pox. He was a dead shot with the rifle and 
his enemies knew it. And that rifle was his 
constant companion. He always took it with 
him into his pulpit during these years and 
when arising to preach set it close at his side 
after carefully examining the priming. 


The Rev. Dr. Henry Ostrander said of him : 
*' His voice was one of great power and com- 
pass. His distinct and impressive tones, his 
natural and vigorous gesticulation and the mani- 
fest fervent kindliness of his spirit conspired with 
the eminently evangelical character of his dis- 
courses to render his preaching effective. The 
Revolutionary troubles called into full exercise 
Domine Schuneman's intense patriotism, in 
connection with his heroic and self-sacrificing 
spirit. The district of country in which he 
lived was the theatre of great commotion and 
horrid cruelty. So deeply convinced was he 
that the interests of religion, as well as the 
civil interests of the country were bound up 
in the great struggle that he gave himself up to 
it, in his appropriate way, with all the earnest- 
ness and energy of a ruling passion. * * * 
He knew well that he was looked upon by the 
enemy as a prize of more than ordinary value; 
but nothing daunted by this he never withheld 
any good service in aid of his country's inter- 
ests which it was in his power to render. He 
was armed night and day with instruments of 
death for the defense of his own person ; but 
his main trust was in the living God." No 
tidings of disaster disheartened him, no im- 
pending danger terrified him, no warnings or 
entreaties to keep out of the way of imminent 
peril made any impression on him. And he 


kept up his course unmoved and unharmed 
during all these years of war riding every Sun- 
day along his wooded roads with his trusty 
rifle, and his fervent sermons inspired the dis- 
couraged patriots until in 1783 the glorious 
battle was won. 

"The Dutch Domine of the Catskills" and 
his patriotic services should never be forgotten 
by the people of this town and this region. 
His was a strenuous life and he inspired those 
with whom he came in contact with his enthu- 
siasm. His services at Coxsackie and at Leeds 
were regular, those at Katsbaan were special, 
but very frequent. And more so during the 
years when the Upper Hudson was the theatre 
of war. He preached up to within six days of 
his death, which occurred May 10, 1794, in his 
82nd year. 

This year 1780 saw the church in Katsbaan 
receive its second pastor the Rev. Lambertus 
DeRonde. And it is remarkable that his ardent 
patriotism too was the cause of his coming. 
He was one of the pastors of the Collegiate 
Dutch churches of New York city, which was 
then occupied by the British. His sermons 
had long been severe upon the course of the 
British government and its brutal treatment of 
its prisoners of war. At last he dealt with 
the matter in plain language and the British 
commander sent him from the city and up the 


Hudson. He came to Katsbaan and was its 
pastor for six years. 

The cause of the patriots was greatly 
strengthened by the course of the ministers 
of the gospel before the opening and during 
the continuance of the long war None were 
more ardent advocates than they. The serv- 
ices of such men as Witherspoon in Congress 
were indispensable and the valley of the Hud- 
son during those " times that tried men's souls" 
was especially fortunate that, with no uncer- 
tain sound, such men as Doll, DeRonde and 
Schuneman inculcated the doctrines that '' all 
men are created equal and that they are en- 
dowed by their Creator with certain unalien- 
able rights, that among these are life, liberty 
and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure 
these rights, governments are instituted among 
men, deriving their just powers from the con- 
sent of the governed." 

And when to such steadfast doctrine was 
joined a fearlessness and courage such as " The 
Dutch Domine of the Catskills" possessed, and 
in such an aggressive personality, men were 
compelled to take their stand whenever and 
wherever he came in contact with them. It 
resulted in making this region as thoroughly 
patriotic as any spot in all America during the 
long war. 



The principal event of the year 1780 in the 
town was the capture of Capt. Jerenriiah Sny- 
der of the First Ulster Regiment and his cap- 
tivity in Canada. As military operations in the 
early part of this year were suspended along 
the Hudson the militia were at home at their 
agricultural labors. On Saturday, May 6th. 
Capt. Snyder and his son Elias, then in his 
eighteenth year, were engaged in getting ready 
a field near their house at Blue Mountain for 
planting corn. The field was bounded on three 
sides by the primeval forest. Father and son 
were separated by nearly the length of the 
field, which was the long white strip of 
plowed land running across the accompanying 
illustration. This was open on the north and 
towards the house. All at once a terror 
seemed to possess their horses, and the next 
moment three distinct parties of Indians and 
Tories painted vermillion appeared from the 
three wooded sides of the field. The captain 
and his son abandoned the horses and fled 
towards the house where the way was still 


open. Then the six Indians in the rear, among 
whom were the notorious John Runnip and 
Shank's Ben, raised the yell and rushed after 
them in pursuit. As they neared the house 
they found themselves cut off by three Tories 
who came over the hill in the rear of the 
house, at about the spot where the snowbanks 
appear. Completely surrounded, Elias sur- 
rendered to a tall fellow named Hoornbeek, 
who was with Ben's gang, while the captain 
was seized by Runnip. A dispute arose be- 
tween the parties nearest the captain as to who 
was entitled to the prisoner, because of the 
reward the British offered for captives, which 
came near a settlement as one of the disputants 
struck at the captain with his tomahawk to 
obtain his scalp. The blow made the captain 
reel and cut him deeply near the ear. He 
attempted another, but Runnip parried this 
just in time to shove aside a spear thrown by a 
third at the captain. 

All this was observed by the women of the 
family from the house, and they fled with the 
children to the woods. The united bands of 
savages ransacked the house and piled upon a 
heap its contents, especially the pork, clothing 
and maple sugar. The leader then demanded 
of the captain four guineas which had been 
paid him by a Tory a few days before, saying 
he knew they were in the chest. The key was 


delivered him, but the impatient savage split 
the lid with his tomahawk. The number of 
guineas was correct, but in his eagerness he 
overlooked one in the chest, and one rolled 
away on the floor. But he obtained two and 
$200 in Continental bills. By this time the 
outbuildings were ablaze. Then Capt. Snyder 
begged that some things be left for his wife 
and children. Permission was granted, and 
some were carried out. They were soon ordered 
to desist, and the house was fired. Then, tak- 
ing the captain and two sons, they set out for 
the mountains. Upon urgent pleading of the 
captain and Elias, the Tories finally released 
Ephraim, the younger son, who was lame and 
only nine years old. And another act of 
humanity is worthy of mention. As they 
proceeded the women were discovered hiding 
in the bushes, but were not molested. After a 
while a halt was made, and the captors pro- 
ceeded to divide the plunder and paint the 
prisoners. Then all moved on in Indian file. 

Nothing had been allowed the prisoners, and 
in their ordinary attire they were marched on 
and soon became footsore. They climbed the 
Catskills in an oblique direction from what is 
now Palenville, and passed between the two 
Mountain House lakes to the east branch of 
the Schoharie kill, which they forded and then 
camped for the night. The next morning 


their fears were relieved by Runnip, who told 
them that they would not be hurt unless they 
attempted to escape. He intended to take 
them to Niagara, and would be kind to them 
as far as circumstances would permit. 

It was now Sunday morning. The Tories 
and Indians separated, the former taking the 
$200 and the guns and the latter the prisoners 
and the rest of the booty. Runnip now as- 
sumed command and led the party to a depot 
for provisions built in a ravine of hemlocks on 
a scaffold formed about ten feet from the 
ground and supported by two hemlocks and a 
crotch. This depot was near the head of the 
Schoharie kill. Monday was wet, and they re- 
mained in camp. Runnip produced the papers 
he had obtained from the captain's chest. He 
threw the smaller ones into the fire and pre- 
served the larger. Among the former were 
many important memoranda relating to the 
military operations of the patriot army which 
it was well should not be read by the enemy. 
Among the latter were the captain's commis- 
sion and some deeds. (About twenty years 
ago the writer learned that the commission was 
in the British Museum, and he made an effort 
through the then Secretary of State, Hon. 
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, to obtain them for 
the descendants of Captain Snyder. The ef- 
fort failed, but copies of some valuable papers 


relating to the capture and their escape were 

Tuesday morning at daybreak the luggage 
was divided into eight packs and each of the 
Indians shouldered one. Then Runnip and 
Hoornbeek, the owners of the prisoners, made 
a subdivision and Captain Snyder and Elias 
shouldered their packs. Hoornbeek after a 
little pitied the boy enough to relieve him of 
one-third of his load. 

Towards sunset that evening they encamp- 
ed on one of the branches of the Delaware. 
The Indians separated, some to search for 
potatoes on the abandoned fields of white 
settlers and some to build an elm canoe. Two 
remained near at hand repairing their moc- 
casins, having left their tomahawks at a little 
distance. The moment when a successful 
attempt at escape might be made seemed at 
hand. Elias was just preparing to spring at 
the tomahawks when four Indians returned 
and thwarted the design. As they returned 
to their elm, they took Elias with them. 

The canoe was finished by noon of the next 
day and in it the whole party of ten embarked 
with all their baggage. Three miles down 
stream a small timber canoe was discovered 
and two Indians with their baggage took pos- 
session. They floated on down that after- 
noon about twenty-four miles and the next 


day sixteen miles farther until the junction of 
the east and west branches of the Delaware. 
At this point the canoes were abandoned and 
the march was resumed. After proceeding 
five or six miles Runnip was suddenly taken 
very ill. A rattlesnake was killed, cleaned, 
skinned, boiled into a soup and eaten, both 
soup and flesh by Runnip, and he was a well 

At noon on Saturday the Susquehanna was 
reached and another canoe was constructed 
from the bark of a large chestnut upon which 
they floated sixty miles down to Tioga Point. 
Here a young elk was shot which afforded a 
welcome change of food. They left their 
canoe here and proceeded on foot along the 
Chemung river and passed the breastwork 
which the Indians had thrown up the year 
before to resist the invasion of General Sul- 
livan. Between the Indian breastwork and 
the Genesee Flats, on Sullivan's route, a 
mound was passed at the side of the path. 
" There are your brothers " said Runnip in 
Dutch as he pointed to them. They were the 
graves of a scouting party of thirty-six men 
which had Keen intercepted and killed by the 
Indians. In the vicinity of this mound they 
fell in with a pack horse which had wandered 
from the army and had wintered in the wild 
grass on the Chemung flats. He was a small 


chunky bay, low in flesh, but apparently in 
good heart. By this time the feet of Elias 
were covered with large blisters, which almost 
prevented walking. One day his sufferings 
became so acute that he was about to drop. 
For such things the Indians have no sym- 
pathy, nor any remedy but the tomaha\vk. 
Providentially they halted for the night an 
hour before sundown that day. 

On the morning of Sunday, May 21st, the 
party reached Genesee Flats and met there 
the first white men they had seen since their 
captors had separated. They were Tories and 
neighbors of Captain Snyder. Their names 
were John Young and Frederick Rowe. 
Young had lived for a number of years within 
a mile of Snyder and now he had a long con- 
versation with him. Rowe did not utter a 
word. The party forded the Genesee river 
through water up to their arms. Then, never 
stopping to dry their clothes, they marched on 
a dozen miles and encamped for the night. 
Soon after a white woman of about twenty- 
five years, with a child in her arms came to 
the camp with an Indian who was her hus- 
band. She enquired in English who the pris- 
oners were and all the circumstances of their 
capture, destination, etc., and then volunteer- 
ed the story of her life. In the French and 
Indian war, as a small child, she had been cap- 


tured and had remained with them ever since. 
She knew not from whence she had come, nor 
who she was. She was a woman of intelli- 
gence despite her surroundings and her hus- 
band seemed a chief. Her face after all its 
exposure to the elements still retained a meas- 
ure of beauty. 

On the 24th of May they camped on a 
stream about thirty miles from Niagara. 
Here the Indians stopped to fish and the 
younger ones drove the fish down the stream 
so that the older ones could spear them. A 
species of sucker was caught averaging three 
feet in length. The next morning a passing 
band of Indians compelled the captain to give 
them his coat and they walked away with it. 
Not long after they met a band of Indians and 
squaws and the squaws robbed them of their 
hats. A little later they met two more 
squaws, one of whom was the sister of Run- 
nip. Their greeting was very joyful and the 
women extended their goodwill to the pris- 
oners whom they took cordially by the hand. 
They spent the night about four miles from 
the fort and on the morning of May 26 march- 
ed over towards it. They passed through an 
encampment of several thousands of Indians 
and the youths and squaws armed with clubs 
tried to strike at them as they went by, but 
Runnip and their captors carefully guarded 



them from the gauntlet. They were soon 
safely within the gates of Fort Niagara. The 
fort, though to be a prison, seemed a haven of 
rest to the weary captives and within the 
stronghold they gradually recovered fro.m 
their exhaustion. 



By the circuitous path from Saugerties to 
Fort Niagara Capt. Snyder and his son Elias 
had journeyed more than five hundred miles. 
They had experienced but one rainy day when 
they rested under a scaffold of hemlock at the 
head of Schoharie creek while the Indians lay 
wrapped in their blankets on the naked earth. 
They had been fairly well fed and of food 
which consisted largely of suppaan, or unbolted 
Indian meal, boiled with dried peas. The pork 
which had been foraged from the premises of 
Capt. Snyder had been carried with them until 
it was eaten. An elk had been shot and a part 
of a deer taken from wolves, otherwise they 
had had no game but muskrats. But they 
could not join their captors in a meal upon 

The Indian who had almost tomahawked the 
captain was his barber now and shaved him 
regularly twice a week. He was quite an ex- 
pert with a razor. The prisoners were painted 
on the first and second days of their captivity 
and then not again until they reached the 


Susquehanna. After this they were painted 
regularly every morning. All were generally 
silent on the march and the little conversation 
had was in broken Dutch. Runnip told Sny- 
der of a proposed raid into Shawangunk after 
higher officers and in July Snyder met some 
more recently taken prisoners who told him 
that they had met Ruimip on his way to 
Shawangunk. A year after this Capt. Snyder 
met Capt. Anthony Abeel, of Catskill, also a 
captive in Canada, who told him the result 
of the raid into Shawangunk. The officers 
wanted were not captured, but some negro 
slaves were seized. These rose in the wilder- 
ness and slew their captors, among whom was 
Runnip himself. 

Fort Niagara had been built by the French 
during their long control of Canada and had 
been one of their strongholds. Since Canada 
had become British the latter had increased 
the strength of the fortifications until it was 
a seat of their power. It was at the outlet of 
the Niagara river into Lake Ontario. About 
six or eight acres were inclosed about the fort 
within which the British commander had 
erected a handsome residence. This was now 
occupied by Col. Guy Johnson, son-in-law of 
Sir William Johnson, of Johnstown. To him 
the Snyders were brought for an interview. 
He was a short, stout man, about forty years 


of age, of stern countenance, and a haughty 
demeanor, dressed in British uniform, with 
powdered locks, cocked hat and sword by his 
side. He ordered all served with a glass of 
rum, the Indians first. Then Runnip delivered 
the captured papers to Col. Johnson and gave 
a succinct account of the captives and the place 
where they were taken. Johnson then in- 
quired the news of the frontiers and Runnip 
replied that the British fleet had ascended the 
Hudson as high as Kingston ; that he and his 
comrades had been at Kingston Point and 
witnessed it. Then turning to Capt. Snyder, 
Johnson inquired : " Do you know anything 
about it?" Deeming it prudent not to con- 
tradict the Indian the captain said, " It may be 
so, but we do not know." Various questions 
were asked relating to the conduct of the war, 
after which Runnip arose and made a speech 
in his native tongue of some ten or fifteen 
minutes, which a well-educated Stockbridge 
Indian rendered fluently into English. As far 
as the captain could gather it the purport was 
that the quarrel and war was between the 
British and Americans and the Indians de- 
manded to be well paid for their help. John- 
son replied that they would be rewarded with 
rum, provisions and corn ; but they must not 
give any to the Indians who hung around the 


After this was settled Runnip took Capt. 
Snyder by the hand and placed it in that of 
Col. Johnson thus handing him over. The 
same ceremony was repeated as Elias was 
transferred. They were then conducted to the 
guard house on the top of the wall, where they 
were confined for a week. On the third day a 
Tory named Rowe, a sergeant in the British 
army, paid them a visit. He had been brought 
up a short distance from Snyder's residence in 
Saugerties, and called to enquire about his 
friends and relatives in that neighborhood. 
He was very civil, and appeared to commiserate 
their condition. They were not allowed any 
private conversation. About this time they 
were each presented with a frock coat of coarse 
Indian cloth. 

While in the guard house they were visited 
by the celebrated chieftain, Brant. He was a 
likely fellow, of a fierce aspect — tall and rather 
spare, well spoken — and apparently about 
thirty years of age. He wore moccasins ele- 
gantly trimmed with beads, leggings, breech 
cloth of superfine blue, a short green coat with 
two silver epaulets, and a small, laced, round 
hat. At his side hung a beautiful silver 
mounted cutlass, and his blanket of bluecloth» 
purposely dropped in the chair to show his 
epaulets, was gorgeously decorated with a bor- 
der of red. Brant's language was very insult- 


ing. He asked many questions, and, among 
others, from whence the captain came? 
When he answered that he came from Esopus, 
Brant replied, ''That is my fighting ground." 
At the close of the interview he addressed 
Elias and said: "You are young, and you I 
pity ; but for that old villain there I have no 
pity." As he said this he pointed to the cap- 

At the end of a week they were removed 
across the river and with three other white 
prisoners put into the hold of a twelve-gun 
vessel on Lake Ontario. Sergeant Rowe re- 
peated his visit, and presented the captain and 
his son with second-hand hats, while a humane 
Tory named Birch, who had lived on the east 
branch of the Delaware, generously offered to 
supply their wants. He had been well ac- 
quainted with Benjamin Snyder, a brother of 
the captain, and seemed anxious to requite 
former kindnesses of that brother. During 
the afternoon of Friday, June 2nd, the 
vessel got under way, and when off from the 
wharf, the prisoners were allowed to come on 
deck. On Sunday afternoon, June 4th, they 
were put ashore on Carleton Island at the foot 
of the lake. In a small fortress on this island 
they were confined about three days of rainy 
and foggy weather, when they were transferred 
to boats and sent off towards Montreal under 


guard of Tories from Sir John Johnson's bat- 
talion. On their way down the St. Lawrence 
they stopped at Ogdensburgh, where they re- 
ceived on board a female prisoner with five 
deserters from the American army. A heart- 
rending scene was witnessed as the woman was 
separated from her husband, who was detained 
a prisoner at Ogdensburgh. At Cote du lac» 
about forty miles from Montreal, they were 
landed and confined in the guard house for an 
hour. Re-embarking, they were carried with 
the current to La Chine, which they reached 
June 12. From this place they were marched 
on foot to Montreal, a distance of nine miles. 
The poor female was released as soon as she 
arrived. By noon the captain and his son had 
quarters assigned them in the Prevot. Here 
in this dismal and disgusting den they were 
confined for months. 



The Prevot at Montreal was a large dismal 
looking place of stone, with great windows, 
and it served not only as a prison for American 
soldiers, but for criminals of every description. 
In a room twenty feet by sixteen, in the second 
story, forty Americans, military prisoners, were 
closely shut up until August ; and their sleep- 
ing apartment .was still smaller. It was but an 
entry or gangway thirteen feet long and eight 
wide, and in this the forty were stowed at night 
in two rows with heads to the wall and feet inter- 
laced. Sometimes when the prisoners were 
many at least fifty were crowded in. Their 
jailer was a humane man who had married his 
wife in Albany and did as much for them as he 

About the first of August they were taken 
before Gen. M'Clean. Those who could pro- 
cure recommendations from loyal Canadians 
were released upon parole. But neither the 
captain, nor his son could do so. Gen. M'Clean 
finally sent away the captain to labor on the 
island, retaining the son as a hostage. At the 


end of ten days he had so far ingratiated him- 
self with the one in charge, Sir William Grant, 
that he was able to secure the liberation of his 

On the night of Oct. 8th six of the prisoners 
escaped. As a result all were again confined 
in the Prevot. Here they remained, without 
stockings, under a cruel Hessian keeper, who 
beat his prisoners with a sword, until June 13th 
fallowing. After a time Capt. Snyder suc- 
ceeded in obtaining some indulgence when this 
Hessian learned that he and his son were of 
German descent from the Palatines who had 
come to West Camp. Their time was occupied 
in cards, except the large share devoted to 
clearing themselves of vermin which infested 
the jail. 

On the thirteenth of June, 1781, Col. James 
Gordon, of Ballston, was brought in a prisoner 
with others. Through his influence Capt. Sny- 
der and son, and Capt. Anthony Abeel and son 
were liberated on parole and billetted among 
the Canadians on the island of Jesu, sixteen 
miles above Montreal. Here they were not 
treated well, but better than in the prison. 
They remained here until the first of December 
when all of the prisoners here, of whom there 
were twenty-one, were confined in one house. 
After a few days things were relaxed ; but it 
was not until Christmas that they first began 


to taste the blessings of good treatment and 
cleanliness. During the winter they were pre- 
sented with a roll of cloth by a compassionate 
Quaker. This they made into clothes them- 
selves after a fashion. The following summer 
they obtained work among farmers and me- 
chanics and spent the winter again at cards. 
An Irish prisoner had somehow obtained a 
copy of Pliny's Epistles which he gave Capt. 
Snyder and these furnished his sole intellectual 

With the coming of the spring of 1782 the 
prisoners began to make plans for escape. The 
captain objected because of his parole. But it 
was urged that he was absolved from this as 
the British commander had broken his prom- 
ise by locking them up in the house in Decem- 
ber which had released the obligation. Then 
Elias declared that he would desert at all events 
and his father yielded. Preparations were 
made. Some leather for moccasins was bought. 
A passport to Montreal was obtained. While 
there a pocket compass was bought and 
wine to celebrate the Fourth of July. And 
when that day arrived twenty faithful Ameri- 
cans met in Capt. Snyder's quarters and com- 
memorated the day in four gallons of wine, 
two of rum and other incentives to what was 
then considered a proper spirit. 

On the evening of September loth, 1782, 


the attempt to escape was made. At a con 
certed point Capt. Snyder and Elias, Jonathan 
Millet, of Stonington, Anthony Abeel, of Cats- 
kill, and James Butler, of Philadelphia, set 
forward for the lower part of the isle. Here 
they found two boats which they lashed to- 
gether. About three miles below there was a 
rapid and as the night was dark Snyder, Abeel, 
Millett and the baggage were landed, while 
young Snyder and Butler, having separated 
the boats, were to navigate them as well as 
they could to a point below the rapid. They 
succeeded in passing without accident, but 
missed those who had gone by the shore. The 
night had nearly passed before they were 
landed on an island ten miles below Montreal. 
Their boats were drawn up into the long grass 
and they lay all day in their wet clothes wait- 
ing for the night. 

After dusk they took the boats and crossed 
to the east side of the St. Lawrence, and by 
daybreak they had reached the river Chambly. 
Here they lay all day in an old hedge. After 
sunset they found a canoe and came across. 
But by an oversight they had lost their axes, 
the only weapons they had. Conceiving them- 
selves beyond danger, they now advanced by 
daylight, passing around all the settlements 
except one through which they walked armed 
with clubs. We cannot follow their perilous 



journey through the trackless wilderness to the 
headwaters of the Connecticut River, and the 
straits to which they were brought for the 
want of food. Almost starved, Elias found a 
thigh of a moose stripped of all but its sinews, 
which they burned and ate of for two days. 
Some days after they found a frontiersman at 
work in a field and obtained a loaf of bread. 
That night they slept at the house of a Mr. 
Williams, who made them eat a moose pie 
prepared for the family supper. Neighbors 
came in with a magistrate, who examined 
them and then furnished them with passports 
to Gen. Bailley. The people of New Hamp- 
shire v/ere exceedingly kind to them, and pro- 
vided for all their wants. They reached Gen. 
Bailley 's quarters on Sunday, September 29. 
He provided them with shoes. After two days 
there the general fitted out the captain with a 
horse, and he rode home through Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, crossing the Hudson at 
Poughkeepsie. The rest, came on foot and 
crossed at Kinderhook. 

On his way home Capt. Snyder had an inter- 
view with Governor George Clinton on the 6th 
of October. The writer has a copy of the of- 
ficial record of the examination. It was con- 
cerning the authenticity of the rumors that 
the British in Canada were preparing for an- 
other invasion of this State, by the way of 


Lake Champlain and the Hudson River valley. 
We now know that no such move was in pre- 
paration, as the commissioners of Great Brit- 
ain and the United States were negotiating for 
peace, and within eight weeks, on November 
30, 1782, a preliminary treaty was signed. 
This was followed by the definite treaty of 
September 3, 1783, and the evacuation of New 
York by the British November 25, 1783, and 
the establishment of peace. 

Captain Snyder in the interview and Gen- 
eral Bailley and General Sullivan in contem- 
poraneous reports refer to these rumors of 
another invasion. But it is now known that 
they originated in the troubles between the 
authorities of this State and New Hampshire 
over their claims to what is now Vermont. 
Vermont was clamoring to Congress for 
admission as a state into the Union and Con- 
gress was postponing such admission until the 
treaty of peace was signed. But the people of 
Vermont were restless and impatient, and that 
impatience manifested itself in constant col- 
lisions between the soldiers of New York and 
New Hampshire and in charges of sympathy of 
Vermont with the common enemy. This had 
led Captain Snyder's party to avoid Vermont 
on the way home, and to the circuitous route 
through New Hampshire. After the Consti- 
tution of the United States w^as formed Ver- 


mont and Kentucky were the first states 
admitted to the Union. 

There is in existence a return of Colonel 
Johannis Snyder of the levies raised in his 
regiment for the reinforcement of the army 
under date of July loth, 1780. The three 
companies from the town of Saugerties are 
thus reported : Captain John L. DeWitt, 100 
men ; Captain Matthew Dederick, 91 men ; 
Lieutenant Peter Backer, 70 men ; in all 261 
soldiers. Lieutenant Backer was in com.mand 
of the company of Captain Jeremiah Snyder 
during the captain's captivity in Canada. 

This ends the story of the connection of the 
town of Saugerties with the Revolution. The 
last two years had been quiet. The theatre of 
war had been shifted to the South, neverthe- 
less as late as March 12, 1781, the trustees of 
Kingston Commons employed four men to 
constantly scout from the bounds of Hurley 
to the Albany (now Greene) county line near 
Palenville to watch the Indians and Tories. 
This covered the western border of Saugerties, 
and on April 3, 1781, they purchased three 
hundred pine trees for stockades. 

Nor was this all. Thirteen days after this 
they purchased two hundred pounds of gun- 
powder for defense, and on June 4, 178 1, the 
trustees appointed a committee to consult 
with Colonel Johannis Snyder for the defense 


of the town. So late the annoying troubles 
with the Tories and Indians continued. At 
last the reward came. No hostile foot has 
ever trodden the soil of this town since that 
day. And when the history of that conflict 
was written it was recorded that not only had 
Ulster county and Saugerties furnished in full 
every call for troops made during the long 
war, but had exceeded that quota by more 
than one-third. 



No happier day was ever enjoyed by the 
people of this town than the day when the 
news came that Cornwallis had surrendered at 
Yorktown to Washington. It was a perfect 
day in October, most of the militia were home, 
for there were not many soldiers from this 
region in the army in Virginia and as all were 
farmers they were engaged in securing their 
fall crops. On most of the farms husking 
corn was in progress when a messenger on his 
way to Albany along the Old Kings Road 
brought the tidings. All work was immedi- 
ately suspended and neighbors flew to tell 
neighbors the glad news that the long war was 
now, in all probability, over. To the tavern of 
Abraham Post, in Saugerties, and to the store 
of Cornelius Persen, in Katsbaan, most of the 
people found their way to ascertain the credi- 
bility of the tidings and to discuss the future. 
Tradition tells how Jan Top, a negro slave of 
Persen, came into the assembled crowd from 
the pile of corn which he was husking with a 
long ear from which he deliberately removed 


every kernel, after which he held it up exclaim- 
ing *' Here it is at last, and he is no more 
Cornwallis, but Cob-wallis." On the following 
Sunday all the region was assembled in the old 
stone church in Katsbaan to a service of 
thanksgiving and praise to Almighty God for 
the success which had crowned our arms. The 
pastor, Domine DeRonde, who had been the 
eloquent preacher of New York before he was 
driven from his pulpit there by the British, 
arose to the occasion, and his patriotic periods 
were long remembered by his auditors. The 
Dutch is a very expressive tongue and the dom- 
ine, who had many old scores to settle, never 
used the language with acuter pungency, or 
greater effect. 

But the rejoicings, the celebrations and the 
acknowledgments over, the conviction grad- 
ually dawned upon the people that all had not 
yet been secured. Money there was in plenty, 
but it was nothing but Continental currency, 
of which forty dollars were hardly worth one 
dollar in silver. Not a coin of what was in 
circulation was the product of a mint in this 
country except coppers. English and French 
guineas, Spanish joes, doubloons and pistoles 
and one or two French coins were the only 
gold in circulation and most of the residents in 
rural regions had rarely seen a gold coin. 
English crowns, shillings and sixpences, and 


Spanish milled dollars, picayunes and pista- 
reens were the coins in silver. 

But when the value of these came to be 
computed confusion worse confounded reigned. 
Values which had been estimated in pounds, 
shillings and pence began to be reckoned upon 
the basis of the Spanish milled dollar. But 
what was that value? A shilling meant six- 
teen and two-thirds cents in Massachusetts. 
But in New York and North Carolina it meant 
twelve and one half cents. In most of the 
states seven and one-half shillings made a 
dollar. In New England six shillings were one 
dollar; in New York and North Carolina eight 
shillings ; in Georgia five shillings, while in 
South Carolina it required thirty-two and one- 
half. Besides all this the current coin had 
been so clipped, sweated and counterfeited 
that a man needed to travel with a pair of 
scales in his pocket and a ready-reckoning table 
in his memory to receive any approach to a 
true value when money was paid him. 

The result was barter everywhere. The 
stamp acts, navigation laws and all the other 
oppressive measures of the British Parliament 
had resulted in throwing the people upon their 
own resources. Every farm house was not 
only a hive of industry in producing products 
of the soil, but a farmer and his family were 
manufacturers of everything they needed, or 


used. They made their own sugar and mo- 
lasses, they brewed their own beer, they spun 
and wove their own clothing and bedding from 
the wool and flax they raised on their own 
acres. Every farmer was cooper enough to 
make his own pails and tubs, blacksmith 
enough to weld iron and shoe his own horse, 
carpenter enough to build his own house if 
needed, and wagon maker enough for his own 
wagons and sleighs. No butcher brought him 
meat, for he salted every November the year's 
supply, and during the year his calves were 
killed when six weeks old, and the quarters 
divided among his neighbors from whom he 
received similar quarters when they had calves 
of that age. The skins were taken to a farmer 
who had a tan vat, and there in a liquid strong 
with oak or hemlock bark, it lay for eighteen 
months in process of tanning. Then it was 
dressed and ready for the peripatetic shoe- 
maker, who came to board with the family 
while he made the family shoes for a year. 

The homespun cloth from the family looms 
was taken to some mill where it could be fulled, 
and then an itinerating tailoress would come 
and be the family guest while she cut and made 
the garments of the household, meanwhile re- 
tailing the gossip gathered upon her flittings 
through the neighborhood. All through the 
livelong day and far into the evenings the spin- 


ning wheels hummed. When they ceased, the 
fires on the hearth were carefully covered to 
keep a coal alive for the morning to avoid the 
necessity for flint and tinder, or, may be, a 
a journey through snowdrifts to borrow a live 
coal, for fifty years were to pass before a fric- 
tion match would be invented. 

When the farmer was cutting his firewood in 
the forests, his eye was ever open for a tough 
and solid tree with a suitably-forked limb, 
which, pointed with iron, would make a plow, 
for iron plows were unknown until after the 
Nineteenth Century had come. His hay was 
cut with a scythe, whose snath he had bent 
himself, and the short blade had been made by 
the neighboring smith. His hay was raked by 
the hand rakes made at his fireside on winter 
evenings when he was not employed in fash- 
ioning axe-helves after a design which seemed 
to him perfectly adapted to his natural method 
of swinging an axe. 

His oxen plowed his fields with yokes his 
hands had made. His team of horses had 
never known a hame collar, as the harness was 
of his construction, and the broad breast 
pieces were of leather from his beeves of pre- 
vious years, whose hides had been dressed for 
him. From these his own skill had constructed 
the broad leather belts which almost covered 
the animals. Where harness was not thus 


made it was of rope from the tow from which 
flax had been spun. But this constantly broke, 
and repeated repairs covered the faithful ani- 
mals with every species of knots. 

Labor was scarce. There were many fam- 
ilies who owned a slave, but many more did 
not. And of those who did but few owned 
two. Even if labor could be hired, there was 
no money to pay wages. It had to be paid in 
produce of the farm. So the universal custom 
of '* bees " became established. Farmers had 
plowing bees, planting bees, logging bees» 
stumping bees, hoeing bees, mowing bees, 
reaping bees, husking bees. There were bees 
to raise new buildings ; there were bees to 
gather loose stone. There were bees to spin 
and bees to weave. There were apple-cutting 
bees and quilting bees, and out of all this 
neighborliness the farmers of this town were 
found in the year that gave us civil freedom 
poor in what the world calls wealth, but rich in 
that afifluent living when every interest of a 
neighbor is an interest of our own. 



In the last chapter an attempt was made to 
describe the condition of this town when the 
seven years of war of the Revolution were 
closed. It is here proposed to glance at the 
educational conditions. 

In the American histories which undertake 
to describe the social conditions of this period 
there is a strange distortion of certain facts. 
The people are pictured as not only poor 
financially, but intellectual and educational 
conditions are put at a very low ebb. 
McMaster even says that " in New York and 
Pennsylvania a school house was never seen 
outside of a village or town." Let us see if 
this is true of what is now the town of Sau- 

The county of Ulster has a peculiar position 
among the original counties of the thirteen 
states which formed the American Union. It 
grew not only from one original permanent 
settlement in early colonial days, but from 
three. And each of the three was from a 


different country in Europe, and each brought 
its own language. Kingston was a Dutch 
settlement, New Paltz was a French and West 
Camp a German. But they had one thing in 
common. Before anything else might be 
done a church and a school must be built. 
Kingston had Andries Van Der Sluys to teach 
the children of the colony as soon as the 
colony was started. New Paltz did the same 
thing, and a former chapter told how the 
Palatine colony at the Camp, which came on 
the fourth of October, 1710, and lived in huts 
of bark and brush that winter built a school 
house of sawed boards within three months of 
the day it landed. 

The chapters which took our readers on a 
walk about Saugerties and Katsbaan locating 
the buildings during the decade 1760-70 called 
attention to a school house in each place. 
The writer can establish the fact that the 
present Union School of Saugerties is the 
historical successor of the school then stand- 
ing near the site of the present Russell block, 
and the school house at Katsbaan that of the 
school of that early day. The writer has the 
certificate by which the owners of the school 
house then on that site in Katsbaan conveyed 
the school they had so long maintained to the 
people of the newly constituted district upon 
the organization of the school system of this 


state. This disposes of the assertion of 
McMaster as at the date of which he wrote 
(1784), both these schools were at least twenty 
years old, and probably sixty. 

But while it is a fact that our Revolution- 
ary sires had provided schools for the young, 
but little else was provided. There was a 
desk all around the room before which was a 
seat without a back. This seat was usually a 
heavy slab into which holes had been bored 
and peg feet inserted. No map nor chart was 
on the walls, no globe nor model to enable the 
eye to catch the meaning or shape of the 
thing described was in the room. Nor was it 
a part of the task of the teacher to make it 
plain. The average teacher trained his pupil's 
memory far more than the reason. His pupils 
were taught to read with some degree of 
fluency, to write with ease and in a legible 
hand, to spell as fairly as could be expected 
when all authorities did not agree on ortho- 
graphy, to cipher until the pupil could cal- 
culate by the rule of three and to learn long 
rules with multitudinous exceptions upon the 
use of language. This was all. The pupil 
had to sit upon the hardest of benches for 
eight hours a day struggling over Cheever's 
Accidence, or DaboU's Arithmetic, wrestling 
with the polysyllables of Dillworth's speller, 
committing to memory long pages of Web- 


ster's American Institute and long sections of 
the Catechism interspersed with Dr. Watts* 
*' Hymns for Infant Minds." The school 
books were printed upon a kind of straw 
paper in letters which were not pleasing to the 
eye, and were illustrated with the rudest of 
wood cuts which had done duty for genera- 
tions of school books and would for genera- 
vtions more until Noah Webster introduced 
the first of the glorious list of modern school 
books with his famous spelling book. 

The schoolmaster was not specially trained 
for his labors, nor was his a life profession. He 
was usually some student for the ministry, law 
or medicine, who eked out his scanty funds 
with a few months each year in pedagogy. He 
would give two months to this every winter, 
while some maiden who desired to provide 
somewhat towards a matrimonial outfit would 
devote two months of one summer, or two, to 
teaching. The boys went in the winter with 
a few girls living near by, and the girls went in 
the summer and with them the little boys. 
Such were the conditions which obtained all 
over the land, and yet in these unpromising 
surroundings the minds of the men and women 
were trained who developed and moulded this 
country of ours during the wonderful Nine- 
teenth Century. 

The teacher boarded around among his 


patrons. He needed a strong constitution as 
he would sleep one night in the best room, the 
next one in the garret ; one night in a room in 
which there was fire, the next in one in which 
no fire had been lighted in six months; one 
night he would have heavy bed blankets, on 
another he would sleep between a thin feather 
bed and a thick one, while on a third would 
have linen sheets on his bed and over all the 
skin of some wild animal. 

He was expected to make himself agreeable 
during the long winter evenings, to help back- 
ward pupils with their sums, to escort the 
young ladies of the family to singing-schools, 
apple-cuts, spinning bees, or quiltings, and as 
he went on Sunday morning with the family 
with whom he chanced to be sojourning to the 
chilly church it was his province to carry the 
footstove with glowing hickory coals to keep 
warm the feet of the lady of the house who 
was entertaining him. And on winter nights 
when the wind was heaping the snow outside 
of the house where he was staying he would 
be found employed in turning the swift or reel 
for the spinning maidens, or holding the yarn 
as the daughters of the family wound it. 

His authority in the school was absolute. 
His scepter was the rod or ferule, his word in 
the home was final in matters to be learned 
from books, his rivalry was dreaded by coun- 


try swains and were he a gentleman by 
instinct and in manner his attentions would be 
most readily accepted by the fairer sex in the 

His salary was but a pittance, his duties 
laborious, but his position carried with it a 
standing among his fellows unknown in this 
day of trained teachers, well equipped schools, 
varied curricula, and text books, which, in 
clear and intelligent language convey the idea 
and the thought in the things they teach. 

He exacted reverence and respect and such 
were paid him. But with it was inculcated a 
respect for law and the rights of others that 
was most valuable to a people just made free 
and independent that their liberty should not 
degenerate into license and selfishness. He 
taught the rising generation well in things it 
needed to learn during the infancy of the 
Republic and many of those lessons might 
with great advantage be taught to the genera- 
tion of the opening of the Twentieth Century. 



As we pass in review the conditions of the 
town at the close of the Revolution, or one 
hundred and twenty years ago, no one will in- 
terest us more than the country doctor. Others 
may have known much of the town ; he knew 
the town. Others may have been faithful in 
their day and generation ; he was the faithful 
one. When highways went around hills, and 
were swamps when rains were falling; and 
were an object lesson in ruts, stumps and stones 
in times of drought, he was the one person who 
knew those terrible roads by day, and pursued 
their tedious miles at every hour of the night. 
He knew the town and the people of it for had 
he not ushered them into it and did he not 
close their eyes as they made their exit ? Had 
he not physicked them, plastered them and 
bled them? Was not his name a witness to 
every will when the drugs he had pounded in 
his own mortar had not proved as effective as 
he had hoped in warding off some disease 
which had baffled his wisdom to diagnose and 
his skill to cure ? And best of all, were there 


not at every cross-road and along every coun- 
try lane, in houses without number, many of 
those who had been restored to health by his 
cheering word, his winning smile, his infectious 
laughter and his simple remedies when calomel 
and purging had failed, when copious bleeding 
had been ineffective and when rhubarb and 
molasses had been prescribed in daily doses all 
in vain ? 

What though the old white horse which he 
bestrid carried the only drug store in a score of 
miles? What though universal medicines had 
not been invented, nor favorite remedies com- 
pounded ? What though almanacs with testi- 
monials from those who had risen from the 
grave because a bottle of some useful panacea 
had been placed in the coffin were not yet 
printed? In spite of the primitive conditions 
prevailing sick and suffering humanity all over 
the town blessed the day in which that old 
white horse stood tied at the door while the 
old doctor with beaming face was within with 
warm greeting and warmer clasp of hand and 
warmest word direct from a heart that was 
pumping its own red blood until the afflicted 
one felt his very presence a reviving hope. 
That restless sufferer might be tossed with 
fever; he might be denied water especially if 
it were cool ; to him ice might be forbidden 
when his veins were afire and instead small 


quantities of clam juice be administered ; he 
might be cupped and leeched and bled ; he 
might find his gums shriveled from his teeth 
by the mercurial compounds he swallowed, yet 
the faithful physician in his constant attend- 
ance and unremitting care oft-times had brought 
him through it all in safety. 

These were days when there was no royal 
road into the medical profession. There were 
but two medical schools in the country and 
these but poorly equipped. Many a medical 
student was admitted to practice who had 
never dissected a human body. So difficult 
was it to obtain anatomical subjects that it is 
said that the Harvard medical school had made 
a single body do duty for a whole year's course 
of lectures. And the writer remembers the 
gruesome tales of the efforts made in their 
student days by the practitioners of fifty years 
ago to obtain cadavers for the purpose. How 
many a grave was violated in those days the 
world will never know ; how rarely did the 
body of a dying criminal escape the knife med- 
ical students would never reveal. 

But meager as was the education obtained in 
those days in medical schools most of those 
who entered the profession were denied even 
this. Almost all who sought to enter upon 
the practice of medicine could do no more 
than study with an old practitioner. Such a 


student went into the office, the pestle rarely 
left his hands as he had to grind the powders 
in the mortar day by day. It was his to hold 
the basin while the patient's blood was filling 
it ; to mix and roll the pills the doctor had 
compounded ; scrape the lint, tear the band- 
ages and sew wounds while his master directed. 

What if but few of the drugs of to-day were 
known ? He learned to know the medical 
qualities of all the plants and herbs of the 
neighborhood. What if the books he studied 
abounded in errors and false speculations? 
Granted that he had a keen eye and logical 
mind, a memory that was tenacious and an 
apprehension that was quick he soon reached 
the limit of the book knowledge of his master 
and began to draw on the stores of his experi- 
ence, and before long was equipped with 
what was needed to carry a benediction to 
those who were suffering. 

He could know that in the community none 
was more welcome than he. None more re- 
spected. None occupied a higher station. 
None more readily rose to prominence and 
wealth. And yet none other felt the impo- 
tence of man as he. Fevers raged and deci- 
mated whole communities, for it had not yet 
been learned what sanitation will do to banish 
them. Quinine had not yet been discovered, 
though cinchona bark was pounded in small 


quantities. Small-pox carried off its victims 
by the hundred and disfigured many more, for 
vaccination was not made known until 1798, 
and innoculation was still declared to be against 
the law of God. Surgical operations were still 
performed regardless of the pain and mis- 
ery occasioned the victims, for anaesthetics 
were unknown until 1846, and the wonderful 
triumphs of the surgery of the present day 
would have been regarded as but little short of 
the miraculous ; while the long and increasing 
list of remedies found in this year of grace in 
the materia medica would have been entirely 
unintelligible to him, and a glimpse at the spe- 
cial and mechanical instruments and devices of 
modern surgery would have been the great- 
est of revelations. 

Few volumes were found in the doctor's li- 
brary, and aside from saws, lancets and turn- 
keys, few surgical instruments used in his prac- 
tice. No medical societies called for the read- 
ing of his experience and discoveries, and no 
medical journals were published to tell of his 
successful cures or operations. His renown 
was local, and he survived for a generation or 
two in the memory and love of those whom he 
had cured, or at least helped, and when he died 
he went to his long rest worthy of such a 
tribute as Ian MacLaren paid Dr. William 
MacClure in the *' Bonnie Briar Bush." 


It remains to speak of the earliest physicians 
of this town. The old stone house now stand- 
ing on the north side of Main street in this 
village was the home upon the farm of Hiskia 
DuBois. This farm was upon both sides of 
the present Main street. In 1773 it was sold 
by David DuBois to Dr. Christopher Kiersted, 
whose mother was Leah DuBois of New Paltz. 
Dr. Kiersted was born in the city of New 
York in August 1736. There he was edu- 
cated, and, as stated, came to Saugerties in 
1773. This house he made his residence and 
office. He was then the only physician in 
town. He died March 23, 1791, but before 
his death two young men from Katsbaan had 
studied medicine with him. They were Dr. 
Coonradt Newkirk, who was born in 1766, and 
Dr. Abram Fiero, born in 1770. When they 
began to practice they both located in Kats- 
baan, Dr. Fiero upon the place now owned by 
William Clement and Dr. Newkirk upon that 
now in possession of William Fiero. These 
were the town physicians for many years, Dr. 
Fiero dying in 1828 and Dr. Newkirk as late 
as 1850. 

On Tuesday, July i, 1806, thirteen phy- 
sicians of Ulster county met in Kingston and 
organized the Ulster County Medical Society. 
Two of -these were Drs. Newkirk and Fiero 
and thus became charter members. Their 










first act was to consider and ascertain the 
cause of an epidemic of fever in Kingston at 
the request of the authorities of that village 
and it was found in a mill pond of stagnant 
water, and the first paper discussed was 
" Fever." 

In the early days of the last century Dr. 
Christopher C. Kiersted, son of the old doctor, 
began to practice in this village. The writer 
does not know the year he was admitted, but 
he became a member of the Ulster County 
Medical Society in 1819. With the develop- 
ment of the great manufacturing interests and 
the consequent growth many other physicians 
settled here of whom it is not within our 
province to tell. This book deals only with 
the origins of things in the town. 



The chapters just concluded have made the 
attempt to transport us back to 1783 and to 
the conditions under which the people of this 
town, having just emerged from a seven years 
war, were living. It is here proposed to look 
at their dwellings and farm buildings. 

Of the old stone farm houses of one hun- 
dred and twenty-five years ago and over, very 
many remain in different parts of the town. 
Year by year some are torn down, but every 
community has several. Some are unoccupied, 
some used for other purposes, but most have 
been greatly transformed and fitted to modern 
conditions of heating and furnishing. Yet 
some can be found with the old-time charac- 

This dwelling was usually of stone and most 
frequently limestone, then as now, abundant. 
Those earliest built were low and rambling. 
The front roof descended from the ridge-pole 
very steeply to the eaves, while the back roof 
came to within eight feet of the ground. There 
was usually no break in the roof, but dormer 


windows were frequent in that front. The 
house was of one story and above this was a 
garret covering the whole lower floor. This 
garret rested upon heavy beams for it was 
chiefly used for the storage of grain and usually 
contained the indispensable loom. The house 
was entered in front across a " stoep" on either 
side of which were long seats which in summer 
fulfilled the purpose of a family sitting room 
and place for neighborly chat and gossip over 
a friendly pipe. In the rear of the house, 
especially if that rear was towards the east, 
was built as a lean-to a large room for summer 
purposes. This was of frame and along its 
outside was a long horizontal shutter which 
could be let down and supported in the man- 
ner of a bracket, and which thus became a shelf 
on which to expose to the actinic rays of the 
morning sun the newly washed milk pans. In 
. this summer room was found during that sea- 
son the family table which was a round one, 
and when not in use the top was turned up on 
a roller hinge revealing a lid under which were 
kept the knives, forks and pewter spoons in 
daily use. Around the room were chairs of 
maple with flag or splint bottoms. 

The table furniture was largely of pewter 
aside from steel knives and forks. Pewter 
spoons, cups, tea-pots, dishes, bowls, molasses- 
pots and measures abounded. Large pewter 


platters were on every table. Even pie dishes 
were made of the metal. Silver ware, espe- 
cially spoons, every family had, but not in 
every day use. 

From the front door a wide hall extended 
across the house to a rear door and in this hall 
summer evenings ever were the sweetest. On 
one side of this hall was the large family sitting 
room with its immense fireplace and its well- 
scrubbed floor, the home of the spinning wheel 
and its accompanying reel and swift. On the 
other side of the hall was the parlor, or 
best room containing, oft-times, high-backed 
chairs of mahogany with claw feet. 

Entering the house from either front or rear 
one came through a door divided into an upper 
and a lower half, the lower of which was 
usually shut. Upon it hung a heavy brass 
knocker for announcing a caller. The house 
was guarded by shutters which were kept open 
by a large iron letter S. Many shutters had a 
crescent-shaped slot towards the top to give 
enough light for one to pass in the room with- 
out running against furniture when they were 

The floors of the house were laid with wide 
white or yellow pine planks and these were 
often hewed and the under side of those on 
the lower floor was a slab. A chair rail ran 
around the plastered wall of the living room. 




and the big fireside with its immense brass and- 
irons was the family centre all the winter 

The cellars were large, cool and airy. They 
were flagged with stone and for more than half 
the year they held the family provisions. Here 
were firkins of butter, barrels of pork, corned 
beef and salted shad and herring, with a large 
tub containing soused pig's feet, headcheese 
and roletjes. Along another side was a hogs- 
head of vinegar and just beyond were barrels 
of cider and probably, one of wine. Here too 
were stored the apples, potatoes, cabbage and 
vegetables for the winter. 

In the bedrooms were high-post bedsteads 
and around the walls were large blue chests of 
pine, oak, or it may be cedar containing rolls 
of the family linen, or manufactured articles 
from the same, with blankets of wool, quilts 
and coverlets. And when a bride was to be 
fitted out her trousseau could be furnished 
from these blue chests. 

On the high bedstead was a downy feather 
bed over a straw mattress, or tick, resting upon 
tight cords crossed in the frame of the bed- 
stead. The bed was draped with white dimity 
curtains, or perhaps a kind of chintz, with vines 
and birds and flowers. The bedstead was high 
enough to receive under it during the day the 
trundle bed in which the children slept at 


night and a valance hid it from sight when 
thus disposed of. 

In the living room, or in the wide hall ticked 
the six-foot clock with a face recording the 
changes of the moon as well as the hours, 
minutes and seconds of the day. Near it stood 
a writing desk, or secretary, with drawers to 
the floor. This was either cherry, or mahogany 
ornamented with brass mountings and contain- 
ing pigeon-holes and other receptacles for the 
stationery, papers and documents of the family. 
The upper part was frequently the bookcase 
for the family library. Also either in the hall 
or in the living room was the closet with glass 
doors behind which was the china of the family 
awaiting a wedding or a New Year's dinner to 
displace the pewter of daily use. 

Behind the house was the great kitchen. 
Here was the domain of the negro women of 
the household if such there were. Here stood 
the dresser on which was displayed the pewter 
of the family shining as brightly as frequent 
polishing could make it. Beside the mammoth 
fireplace was the brick oven with its long spadle 
for placing or taking out the platters of bread 
or biscuit, or the pewter pie dishes. Within 
the chimney jams hung the crane ready for 
instant use, and beside it stood a tin Dutch 
oven ready for service in front of the glowing 
fire, while against the jam was the spit for the 

" '^:$ -^ '"' \\ ' 4 1 



roast. Long iron toasting forks, long-handled 
frying pans and grijddles, revolving gridirons 
and ladles were in their accustomed places and 
beside the dresser stood a wooden mortar with 
a long cylindrical stone for a pestle to grind 
the spices for the family. 

Most of the remaining houses have been alt- 
ered so often that their early features have gone. 
The lean-to described has disappeared from 
almost every one in town. The house of 
Luther Myer, in Hommelville, still has one in 
all its pristine glory. Many still have their 
heavy beams and low ceilings. But even here 
the ruthless hand of the renovator has often 
robbed it of beauty by cutting part away, or 
covering them with ceiling boards or plaster. 
Most of the divided doors have gone, the high 
post bedstead has disappeared with pewter 
dishes and spinning wheels, and the large open 
fireplaces vanished with the groups that made 
merry around the pine-knot fires. 

Shortly after the new century began with 
1801, a new style of stone houses began to be 
erected. When a more modern limestone 
dwelling was built at that time upon the farm 
so long in the possession of the late Ephraim 
I. Myer, of Katsbaan, it was the talk of the 
town. The ceilings were made high and plas- 
tered, and a circle of plaster ornamented the 
ceiling above the centre of the room. Then 


the stone parsonage at Katsbaan was built a 
two-story house and set another fashion. 

The village of Saugerties has types of both 
these styles of Dutch stone dwelling architec- 
ture. The Mynderse house, the Peter P. 
Schoonmaker, and the Kiersted representing 
the older, while that of Sherwood D. Myer 
represents the newer. 

The barns were immense affairs. As abund- 
ant room was necessary to swing the flail barn 
floors were built of great size. Of necessity 
crops were stored overhead and oak beams of 
strength and size must be used to support them. 
In these latter days these barns have been 
torn down. Threshing by machinery requires 
little barn room, bays hold the crops which in 
storage are thus but little removed from the 
ground, and labor-saving machinery gathers 
and stores them. Nevertheless the changed 
conditions are not greater than can be wit- 
nessed to-day. Could a modern farmer of this 
town be transported to a Dakota prairie and 
see machines doing every species of farm 
labor he would not be more interested than 
an Eighteenth Century farmer of Saugerties 
returning to see the present-day methods on 
his own acres. 

Readers of this chapter will find much in it 
which seems of a later day than the close of 
Revolution. But the change from the con- 


ditions of that day was slow and gradual. 
Those whose memory recalls the middle of the 
last century saw much of what existed one 
hundred years ago. But since the civil war of 
1861-65 almost all the life of the former days 
has been swept away. And the coming gen- 
eration will find it difificult to understand the 
manners and customs that continued in this 
town until shaken to their destruction by the 
earthquake of the terrible civil war. 



When we were glancing at the settlement of 
this town in one of the earlier chapters, we 
noticed how little land was under cultivation 
before the year 1700. Attention was called to 
the great " bouwerie " of maize the Indians 
were cultivating just north of the village of 
Saugerties in 1663, and had been during un- 
known years, and the beginning of farm life as 
the first permanent settler, Cornelius Lambert- 
sen Brink, took possession of his grant in 1688 
on the Plattekill and Esopus at the south end 
of the town, with Peter Winne adjoining him 
in 1692. No one besides these resided in the 
town when the year 1701 ushered in the 
Eighteenth Century. 

For twelve years there was no further con- 
veyance of land in the town of Saugerties. 
The four Meals and Hayes grants of 1685-8/ 
had been passing through different hands with- 
out anything being done towards settlement 
upon them. On the i6th of August, 1712, the 
large patent covering so much of the village of 
Saugerties was deeded to John Persen, who 


settled upon it. One month later (September 
13, 1712) the British government abandoned 
the tar-making project at West Camp, and al- 
lowed the Palantine colonists to seek homes 
for themselves, which most of them who were 
on the west side of the Hudson did within our 
town. The twenty-five years following (171 5- 
40) witnessed the clearing of the forests and 
the breaking of the soil to the plow, especially 
at Katsbaan and about the present village t)f 
Saugerties. And almost every one of the 
early deeds in this town on record covering the 
more desirable farming land is dated during 
these twenty-five years. So that at the time 
under consideration, or the year 1783, the 
farms of the town had not been tilled for much 
more than fifty years. We propose to look in 
this chapter at this comparatively virgin soil 
and its harvests. 

We find the farmers raising the standard 
crops year by year. On every farm the great 
crop was hay for the subsistence of the domes- 
tic animals of the farm. There was no local 
market for it, as every one but Domine De 
Ronde, who lived where is now the residence 
of Mrs. Dawes in the village of Saugerties, was 
engaged in farming. Captain Benjamin Snyder 
carried some to New York, as he had resumed 
his trips with his sloop from the creek since the 
Treaty of Peace was signed. But baling hay 


was not yet thought of, and the sloop could 
not carry much loose. 

Old meadows, as now, were turned over 
by the plow, and potatoes or corn planted on 
the upturned sod. Potatoes was the profitable 
crop in the virgin soil. And on almost every 
farm were potash kettles producing pot and 
pearl ash from the exhaustless forests, and the 
residuum kept the fertile soil yielding such 
crops of potatoes as the town has never pro- 
duced since. The same may be said of the 
cereals, corn, rye and wheat, and during the 
short days of winter the country resounded 
with the ring of the flails as the golden sheaves 
of wheat and rye were parting with their treas- 

On every farm was a tobacco patch. Every- 
body smoked or chewed, and the use of snuff 
was almost universal. It was known that bet- 
ter tobacco came from Virginia, but there was 
no money for Virginia tobacco, and the home 
product must suffice, though snuff was brought 
up the river and could be obtained at Persen's 
store in Katsbaan. In those days, as now, the 
great tobacco firm was that of the Lorillards, 
and jars of Lorillard's snuff stood on the shelf 
of every merchant. On every farm were flocks 
of sheep. The winter clothing of all was 
woolen. This was from the backs of the sheep 
of the farm. Sheep shearing every spring 


provided the raw material, which was then 
taken to the wool carder and returned in rolls 
for the large spinning wheel to be spun for the 
loom, and the whir of these made music in 
every house as the spinner, holding the roll in 
her left hand and whirling the wheel with her 
right, stepped back five or six feet on the floor 
and then wound the spun thread upon the 
spindle as she returned. Twenty years before 
this Hargreaves had invented the spinning- 
jenny, which could spin a dozen threads or 
more at once, and a few of these had already 
come in use in the town. This yarn was then 
dyed and woven into cloth or blankets and 
the cloth again taken to the mill to be fulled,, 
after which a traveling tailoress cut and made 

the family clothing. 

Every farmer had his field of flax as well. 

This was carefully tilled and when ready to 
gather was pulled and laid in rows to rot the 
outer stalk. Then it went to the "crackle," 
by which those stalks were broken. This was 
a frame of long wooden knives upon which 
was a lid of similar knives hinged to the frame 
at one end. The upper knives were raised 
and, descending, each just avoided the corre- 
sponding lower knife while breaking the outer 
stalks of the bunch of flax placed between the 
knives. The bunch of flax went next to the 
" switchel," or ** swingle." This was an erect 


board, not quite perpendicular, about three 
feet high and the upper end was sharpened. 
The bunch of flax from the crackle was laid 
over this and beaten with a long wooden knife 
to separate the fibrous parts from the stalky 
and entirely break up the coarser fibers. It 
was then ready for the " hetchel." This was a 
board with a square of iron teeth in alternat- 
ing rows. Through this the bunch was repeat- 
edly drawn and the fine fibers of flax were 
combed from the coarser tow. This fine pro- 
duct was then ready for the distafl" of the 
small flax wheel, so well known everywhere, 
on which it was spun. Its future course to 
the loom and the bleaching-green need not be 
told. The years we are describing found 
chests and presses filled with countless yards 
of linen, and garments of the same, in the 
dwellings of the town. Some of these were 
especially fine in texture and witnessed to the 
labor and skill of the fair hands that had spun 
and woven them. One of the pleasantest 
recollections of the boyhood days of the writer 
is a scene in which a half a dozen or more men 
were cradling grain together, each man one 
step behind the one leading him, and each 
clad in a suit of homemade white linen. The 
graceful swing of the cradle, as each kept 
stroke along a hillside was a pastoral picture 
which will never be seen again. The tow, the 


coarser flax from the hetchel, was spun into 
rope or mops, or woven into doormats. 

The orchards were laden with apples. There 
were not as many varieties as to-day, many of 
those we use having been developed by the 
systematic and scientific culture of the apple. 
But a few of the excellent old varieties as the 
Straat and Esopus Spitzenbergh are either 
lost, or deteriorated. The delicious pears of 
to-day were almost unknown as they were 
originated during the Nineteenth Century. 
This is true of most of the orchard fruits as 
peaches, plums, nectarines and apricots. 

Many of the vegetables which now enrich 
our tables were unknown. There were no 
cauliflowers, no egg-plants, no tomatoes, no 
nasturtiums. The seeds of the tomato were 
brought in after years from France to be cul- 
tivated as an ornamental shrub for its golden 
love-apples. The fruit was at first thought to 
be poisonous. Turnips, beets, cabbage and 
onions were grown, but not spinach and aspar- 
agus though the latter began to be gathered 
where it was found to be growing wild. 

On the hills and in the woods huckleberries, 
strawberries, raspberries and blackberries grew 
in abundance. But nothing had been done to 
produce the exquisitely flavored berries found 
in the gardens of» today. Nor were the 
beautiful flower gardens of to day possible. 


The beautiful geraniums, fuchsias, and chry- 
santhemums which bloom with us were 
unknown. So were many others of those 
which every woman cares for now and loves. 
Tulips were there and roses. But the exquisite 
productions of the propagating skill of the 
florist which we enjoy had not been conceived 
of. And yet the gardens of those days with 
their bachelor's buttons, sweet peas, sweet 
Williams, holly hocks, marigolds, pinks and 
violets will be ever fragrant in the memory of 
those who gathered them in childhood. 

No one gathered ice in those days. Every 
thunder storm curdled the milk. The butter 
was hung after every meal in a pail in the 
coolest corner of the well and bushes were left 
to grow to shade the cellar windows to pre- 
serve the delicious coolness to be found in 
every farmer's cellar. 

Oranges were sometimes seen, cocoanuts 
often and lemons were frequently found in 
groceries, but pine-apples and bananas were 
unknown. A fruit store, such as every coun- 
try village now knows, had never been seen in 
the largest cities, and a representative of 
sunny Italy could hardly be found in America 
at that day. It was known that Columbus 
was an Italian, and Amerigo Vespucci, but it 
had not been conceived that any other would 
ever come, and modern Italian exhibitions of 


fruit could not have been displayed at their 
completest county fair. 

On every farm porkers were fattening for 
the November " butchering." And in the 
stall a beef was being fed for this event. In 
May the farmers flocked to the Hudson river 
for shad and herring, and a barrel of each was 
salted for the family larder. Game was still to 
be had in reasonable plenty and streams were 
stocked with fish. Every farmer had a flock 
of poultry, including ducks, geese and turkeys 
while the last in their wild state were fre- 
quently found by the sportsman. Every spring 
the sky was darkened by the interminable 
clouds of wild pigeons flying north, of which 
hundreds found their way into the farmer's 
kitchen. So the life of those days was still 
one of comfort and plenty though many 
things we find to be necessities had never 
been conceived of. Above all there was a 
whole-soulness in the life they lived which the 
strenuousness of modern existence has almost 
destroyed from the earth. 



Much more remains to be told of the life 
and work on the farm in the early days of 
1783. The present generation will be inter- 
ested in the appearance of our grandsires and 
dames. They were largely, or almost entirely, 
clad in garments homespun and made. We 
attempted to tell of the cultivation, prepara- 
tion and use of the flax and linen. More should 
be said of homemade woolens. 

A description of the large spinning wheels 
for wool, and for tow as well, was given in the 
last chapter. We propose to take the reader 
to a Saugerties farm in the spring. There 
comes a balmy day in that season and the flock 
of sheep is driven to some stream where a 
waterfall is tumbling. The flock is there im- 
pounded. One by one they are taken to the 
fall and the water pours into the heavy fleece 
which has coated them through the wintry 
days now gone. Holding the sheep in his 
arms the farmer rubs the drenched fleece until 
the water from it runs clearly. Then another 
takes its place. After a few days drying it is 


ready for the shearer who quickly robs it of its 
winter coat. This was taken to the fulling mill 
where it was carded to remove burs and other 
foreign substances, and to transform it into 
rolls for spinning. From the spindle the yarn 
was run off upon a reel which had a clock 
ratchet to give notice when a hundred yards of 
yarn had been wound. This was called a skein, 
and two or more of them twisted together a 
''hank." Sometimes it was necessary to twist 
the threads of yarn. Two skeins were then 
hung around a "swift." This was a cage of 
wooden rods which hung upon an upright staff 
upon which it revolved. The only bearing 
was at the top of the staff which was sharpened 
and inserted in the cross-pieces supporting the 
rods. From the revolving swift the yarn un- 
wound as it was twisted upon the spindle of 
the large spinning wheel. As the bearing of 
the swift had never been known to be oiled the 
friction soon produced a wierd, uncanny sound 
which, once heard, could never be forgotten. 
Thirty knots of warp and stocking yarn, and 
forty of woof, or filling were considered a day's 

After reeling the yarn was scoured and went 
to the loom. The warp was "spooled" and 
thence run off on the warping bars. Then each 
thread by itself was drawn through one of two 
*• harnesses" and wound on the warping beam 


after each passed through a reed. The filling 
was run on a quill, which was usually a cone of 
small paper, home-made. A quill wheel was 
used to fill both spools and quills. The quills 
were then inserted in a shuttle which was 
thrown by hand through the alternating threads 
of warp. Then by treadles worked by the foot 
one harness was pulled down as the other 
raised, the reed, hung in a heavy frame, was 
beaten with one hand and the shuttle with the 
woof was thrown back by the hand which had 
caught it to ihe hand which threw it while the 
other harness was brought down and the shuttle 

From the loom the web went to the dye. 
The colors were usually snuff-brown or butter- 
nut and either often mixed with white. After 
dyeing the cloth was fulled, teasled, sheared 
and pressed and was then ready for the tailor- 
ess, as before described. But no process could 
keep this homemade cloth from catching lint 
and dust, and from fulling when it became wet^ 
and the clothes often shrank in the wearing. 
It possessed one great virtue, it would wear, 
and through seasons not a few. To prevent 
the shrinking the wool was frequently mixed 
with cotton and a cloth called satinet was 
made which was almost universally worn, or 
the wool was mixed with linen and called 



Dresses and petticoats were also made from 
homemade flannel, and whatever the aesthetic 
eye might say about them they had the merit 
of warmth, and with the homemade woolen 
stockings, cuffs, mittens and comfortables the 
women, boys and girls of the families were 
ready for the blasts of winter. 

For all ordinary wear, and even for service 
on Sunday, our ancestors, both in youth and 
in older years were thus clad in homespun 
woolen, and in summer in linen of their own 
production. But all occasions were not ordi- 
nary, especially for the young of both sexes, 
' and few were so poor as to be unable to secure 
a suit, at least, of what was worn in the outer 
world. This had been hard to obtain. It was 
difficult to secure the money to buy with and 
more difficult to buy. During all the years 
from 1776 to 1783 the British had been in pos- 
session of New York city and thus merchants 
up the Hudson had been shut out from the 
city. Cornelius Persen, who kept the town 
store at Katsbaan, had been compelled to 
transport his merchandise all the way from 
Philadelphia by the inland route of the Ron- 
dout valley to Port Jervis and the Delaware 
valley to Philadelphia. And during the long 
months of the British occupation of that city 
he had made the long journey with teams to 
Boston. As most of what the people used 


was raised on their own farms a merchant did 
not keep the assortment of to-day. Still 
spices were needed, and tea. Salt was a 
necessity. Farmers produced their own flour, 
sugar, molasses and tobacco. But they pur- 
chased their snuff, exchanged farm products 
for their tea and spices, and in their barter 
provided for finer garments from the mer- 
chant's shelves. What had he to offer? His 
dry goods were called broadcloths, tammies, 
half-thicks, persians and pelongs, blue sagatha 
and red bunts, ticklenburghs and black ever- 
lastings, and handkerchiefs bearing the unin- 
telligible names of bandanoe, lungee, romals, 
culgee, puttical and silk setetersoy. If Per- 
sen's shelves could not supply the would-be 
purchaser who desired any of the above dry 
goods a journey of twelve to fifteen miles over 
a rough road would provide for his or her 
selection the assortment to be found in 
Groote 'Sopus, as the Dutch always called 

The wagon of that day had no springs, and 
jolted fearfully over the roots and stumps and 
through the ruts of country roads. One day 
Cornelius Persen brought home a vehicle 
which was the wonder of the country-side. It 
had only two wheels. The body was hung 
upon two heavy straps of leather stretched 
from a cross-bar in the shafts under the box 


and around big iron bows behind the seat and 
thence down to the axle. There was not 
much spring to the leather straps, but when 
the wheels struck an obstacle there was a 
lateral motion which prevented a jolt at the 
risk of being thrown from the gig. This 
vehicle could be used only to ride to church 
and on other occasions of state. But it was 
the predecessor of modern conveyances, and 
the days of the lumber wagon as a family car- 
riage waned. 

Most of the labor was done by oxen. Oxen 
plowed the fields, for they were cheaper and 
more steady and patient to break up the 
newly-cleared ground so full of stumps, roots 
and stones. Oxen drew the logs and fire- 
wood, oxen were yoked to most of the wagons 
upon the highways. The crops were drawn 
from the fields upon ox-carts and hay was 
loaded so far over the beasts that they were 
hidden and the load seemed almost to move 
itself. These patient beasts of burden were 
emblematic of the slow, the sure and the safe 
life of those days when the foundations of the 
prosperity of this mighty land were being laid. 
We may smile at their slowness. But our 
fathers built sure, and they built well. The 
foundations thus laid have never needed 
repairs and all the stress of modern life would 
have shaken any other to its overthrow. 



The culmination of the year among our an- 
cestors one hundred years ago was the holiday 
season. With the labors of the field completed 
and, for the time, the flail in the barn sus- 
pended and the wheel and the loom in the 
house set aside, the families who had toiled so 
hard gave themselves over to a season of en- 
joyment. In those days this season began 
with the day of Santa Claus, or St. Nicholas, 
December 6th. That worthy saint, or his em- 
bodiment, went about distributing presents to 
good children, and at that time all were good, by 
filling their stockings hung in chimney corners. 
All had made great preparation for his recep- 
tion. The children had been singing all day: 

" Santa Claus, goedt heilig man, 
Loop uw wag van Amsterdam, 
Van Amsterdam na Spanje, 

Van Spanje na Oranje, 
En breng deze kindjes eenige graps. 

Sint Nicholas, mijn goeden vriend, 

Ik had u altijd wel gediend. 
Als gij mij nu wat wilt geven, 

Zal ik u dienen mijn leven." 


This petition might be roughly rendered into 
English after this fashion to us degenerate 
Dutch-Americans : 

Santa Claus, good holy man, 
Go your way from Amsterdam, 

From Amsterdam to Spain, 
From Spain to Orange, 

And bring these little children toys. 

Saint Nicholas, my dear good friend. 
To serve you ever was my end. 

If you me now something will give, 
Serve you I will as long as I live. 

But a generation or so before the time of 
which we are writing this day had been less 
and less frequently observed and all its essen- 
tial features transferred to Kerstijdt, or Christ- 
mas, which followed in nineteen days thereafter. 
Services were held in the church, with the 
communion of the Lord's Supper, while at 
home great preparations were in progress for 
the family dinner of the year. 

Nieuw Jaar, or New Year's Day, was always 
kept. There was not as much calling to bring 
the greetings of the New Year as in villages 
and cities, but houses were ever open on that 
day and the fullest hospitality shown. And 
every New Year's day services were held in 
the church in Katsbaan and the sermon re- 
viewed the year. With the coming of the 


Rev. Dr. Ostrander, in 1812, he introduced the 
feature of an interpretation of the immediate 
future in the h'ght of the recent past, which 
was exceedingly profitable, as he used the 
Scriptures to show how all was bearing on the 
extension of the kingdom of Christ on earth. 
Paas, or Easter, was duly observed and Pinxs- 
ter, or Whitsuntide, was a holiday. This was 
the special day of the colored people. 

Shortly after New Year's day had come and 
gone a succession of visits was begun and con- 
tinued. Leaving part of the family at home 
to care for the stock on the farm and keep the 
house the team Avas hitched to the sleigh and 
driven to some distant relatives for a stay of a 
day or two. From there to another, and some- 
times a dozen or more such visits would be 
paid to relatives and friends living within a 
radius of twenty or thirty miles. Upon their 
coming home the visiting family would begin to 
receive return visits and this interchange would 
be kept up until the returning sun would begin 
to send the sap of spring into the sugar maples, 
and the season for providing the sugar and mo- 
lasses for the year's supply was at hand, and it 
was time to tap the maples. 

It was a busy scene around the sap-bushes. 
The upturned troughs of previous years 
would be cleaned, the elder or sumac spiles 
prepared and the trees tapped. It was a work 


that required attention to gather the sap into 
the sugar house and boil it. In those early- 
years brass and iron kettles hung over the fire 
and slowly evaporated the water, but in time 
the well-known large, shallow pans displaced 
the former and rapidly reduced the sap to the 
desired sweets. No one who has ever been so 
fortunate as to enjoy the delicious sugaring-off 
can ever forget the occasion when a mass 
thrown into the newly fallen snow to cool de- 
lighted the palate. 

But no sooner was the close of the winter 
celebrated by these preparations for the sac- 
charine neccessities of the family than busy 
housewives found other needs equally pressing. 
Into an immense tub set upon a large flat 
stone, and upon a layer of straw, a great 
quantity of ashes was put for leaching. The 
lye thus obtained was boiled into soap with 
the accumulated grease. In the cellar of the 
house usually stood a trough excavated from 
the trunk of a huge tree and divided into two 
compartments. Into one of these compart- 
ments this soap, which had been made soft^ 
was poured and kept for a year to thoroughly 
cure before using. The succeeding spring the 
other compartment was filled and from the 
first the year-old soap was used. 

Meanwhile during the short days of winter^ 
the threshing had been done and the beaten 


grain been winnowed by being thrown by 
broad winnowing baskets against the wind 
blowing across the barn floor, as fanning mills 
were yet unknown. It was a long and laborious 
process. And during all this time the axe had 
been plied in the forests, and the year's supply 
of wood for the fires, and of rails for the Vir- 
ginia fences, which zigzagged around all the 
fields, had been chopped, brought home, split 
and piled. The farmer had erected his rope- 
walk, and the tow from the flax the women had 
spun had been made into rope. His flint-lock 
musket had been cleaned for the northward 
flight of the wild pigeons that would darken 
the sky for days, and pigeons in every variety 
of preparation would find their way from his 
kitchen to his table. 

With the young men and boys he had set his 
traps in the forests about, and many a skin of 
mink, otter or muskrat, or it may be of larger 
game, had been obtained. The gun had se- 
cured for him the pelts of a number of foxes, 
and these were prepared for the annual visit of 
John Jacob Astor to Persen's store in Kats- 
baan. Here they brought welcome dollars to 
the hunter and the trapper, for Astor came 
with the earliest sloop up the Hudson in the 
spring, and trappers and hunters from the Cats- 
kills and beyond the mountains resorted to this 
store to meet him. At times the old store- 


house was filled with them, and Astor carried 
the overflow into the kitchen against the indig- 
nant protests of the mistress of the house. 

The social life of the young people had been 
maintained through the winter. Many had 
been the spinning-bees, and these had been 
followed by a frolic. Quilting bees had been 
numerous, and to these the young men came in 
the evening. Regularly during the winter a 
singing school was held every week. Here 
some vocal instructor gathered the young in 
school house or church, and catching the pitch 
of the key from his pitch-pipe instructed and 
led them in sacred song. Often some one who 
was an expert with the flute or violin would 
give instruction thereon as well, and train a 
choir of voices not only, but develop an or- 
chestra in the use of violin, violoncello and 
flute. About the year 1830 a teacher by the 
name of Dunton was such an one, who visited 
Katsbaan and trained a choir remarkable for 
their cultivated voices and skill with the above 

Debating societies were features of the win- 
ter. The questions were argued with every 
recurring year. The disputants were ranged 
upon the afifirmative and negative sides, and 
the decision as to which brought forward the 
better arguments and reasoned most cogently 
was left to three judges. Our Dutch ancestors 


in this locality became noted reasoners, and 
held their opinions with tenacity, but there 
were those who prided themselves upon their 
logic. It was related of some that when they 
found their opponents abandoning the field, 
they would go over to those adversaries' side 
and argue their view of the case to a trium- 
phant conclusion. In these forums the ques- 
tion of liberty had been argued time and 
again preceding, during and after the Revolu- 
tion ; and preceding the civil war of 1861-5 
these debating societies were once more arenas 
for the discussion of the mighty questions 
finally decided in that momentous conflict. 

The Fourth of July was the great holiday of 
the year. Around it centered all that was 
patriotic. Its spirit was an exhilaration of the 
energy of a young nation conscious of possess- 
ing boundless resources not only, but of being 
free. The day was ever celebrated by young 
and old. The Declaration of Independence 
was read by him who possessed the most so- 
norous voice, and the orator of the day was 
ever expatiating on the deeds of Washington 
and the army, and ever viewing the universal 
spread of liberty and American institutions. 
And in view of what has been achieved in the 
Nineteenth Century the boast of those orators 
has been entirely justified. 



The story of our town was brought down to 
the close of the Revolution, but before we 
leave this period the writer desires to call 
attention to two or three interesting docu- 
ments and have them become part of that 
story. We will consider them in their chrono- 
logical order. The first is a request made by 
Captain Jeremiah Snyder of Governor Clinton 
for ammunition. To explain the situation it 
should be said that the battle of Oriskany, in 
the Mohawk valley in 1777 and the terrible 
slaughter of the Indians there aroused in them 
a burning desire for revenge. From this time 
the settlements on the frontier suffered from 
the torch and tomahawk, or were in constant 
alarm. Early in 1778 Governor George Clin- 
ton placed the defense of the north-west 
frontier of Ulster county in the hands of Col- 
onel Johannis Snyder. He had charge of this 
until the close of the war. One of the princi- 
pal approaches by which the savage foes came 
to the settlements was through the Esopus 


valley. Colonel Snyder stationed a force at 
Little Shandaken which was continued there 
with short intervals until 1781. Captain Jere- 
miah Snyder, of this town, was in command 
in the autumn of 1778 and his letter needs no 

Captain Snyder Asks For Ammunition. 

Little Schondeacon, Octbr, 15, 1778. 

Sir, I think proper to let you know that upon my 
taking the Command at this place I found that the 
Company was in a bad posture of Defence in Regard 
to Ammunition. I, therefore, would be glad you 
would endeavor to send a fresh Supply as soon as 
possible, that we may be able to make some Resist- 
ance in case the enemy should make an excursion 
upon this Settlement, but we have at Present no 
InteUigence of their being near this Place. 

This Company now Consists of Forty-one Private, 
besides Serjeants & Corporals, and these I can not 
Suply with three Cartirages a peice ; from this you 
may Judge what Defence we can make. My Request 
is, therefore, you will Send a Supply as soon Possible 
and you'll obUdge, Sir, 

Your Most Hble Serv't 

Jeremiah Snyder, Capt. 

To Gov. George Clinton. 

The second document is a year and a half 
later. To the First Ulster Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel Johannis Snyder, had been 
attached a troop of horse commanded by Cap- 
tain Sylvester Salisbury. For some reason 
this troop had been detached from this regi- 


ment and assigned to some other. Neither 
the circumstances nor the other regiment is 
now known. The petitioners, who were Sau- 
gerties men, protested and joined in the follow- 

Petition to Governor George Clinton. 

Kingston, April 24th, 1779. 

The Petition of the Troopers in the north Part of 
Ulster County to his Excellency Governor Clinton 
humbly sheweth : 

As a mutual attachment and good Understanding 
between Officers and their men are an Essential Part 
of the many Requisites which are necessary to ensure 
victory to our arms and Freedom to our Country, 
And, Whereas, Capt. Sylvester Salisbury, (between 
whom and your petitioners there subsisted the Great- 
est Harmony and Confidence), has resigned his 
Commission, and that solely, because he was to be 
under the Command of a man whom he deems 
unworthy of the Rank he holds : 

We, the Subscribers, Beseech your Excellency, 
either to annex the Troop to some other Regiment, 
or put them under the Command of some superior 
Officer, and re-appoint Captain Sylvester Sahsbury 
to the Command of the Troop. Should this be the 
case, your Petitioners beg leave to assure your 
Excellency, that their Services shall be, as they have 
heretofore been. Free, Chearful, & Ready. And 
your Petitioners &c. shall ever Pray &c. 

Adam Woolfven, Abraham Keater, Roeloff 
Eltenge, Christian Dull, Moses Pattison, Tjerck 
Low, Petrus Winne, Junier, Henry P. Freligh, John 
Dewitt, Jr., John A. D. Witt, John E. Schoon- 
maker, Peter C. Brinck, Edward Osterhoud, Hen- 


dryck Turck, John Turck, John FreUgh, Benjamin 
Velten, John J. Chrispel, Benjamin Winne, John 
DeWitt, Jun., John Brink, Jun., Baltus Kiffer, 
Peter VanLeuven, Christian Fero, Marten Hommel, 
jr., Hermanus Hommel, Abraham Hoffman. 

The third of these documents exhibits a 
serious state of affairs. We have just noticed 
the conditions that required the presence of 
troops to guard against invasion by the way of 
the Esopus valley in 1778. Before that year 
had passed Wyoming and Cherry Valley had 
been blotted out by the tomahawk, the torch 
and scalping-knife. And every settler in an 
exposed place trembled for his home and loved 
ones. It was known that the savage foe was 
preparing for further devastation. In view of 
pending danger the following petition was 
started in Katsbaan and circulated through the 
town : 

Saugerties Men Ask for a Guard. 

To His Excellency George CHnton, Esq., Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief of all the MiUtia of 
the State of New York and Admiral of the Navy of 
the same. 

The Petition, of the principal well affected Inhab- 
itants of the most northerly part of Ulster County, 
Humbly Sheweth : 

That, whereas, after Sincerely consider' d our 
present Situation, we find that we live in a very Dan- 
gerous part of this State ; many Disaffected Persons 
among us, and a Savage Enemy dayly on our weakly 
Guarded frontiers ; and whereas, four young men of 



our Neighborhood, who have lately Engaged in the 
Eight months service, are gone off, and Joyned 
without Doubt the Enemy, they will Discover unto 
them, our present weak Situation, for the Small 
Guard at Woodstock is in no State to our Safety, for 
this minute we are alarmed, and Called out to the 
Blue mountains, for the Enemies are making their 
approach on our Quarter, as we Supose, will take 
their Revenge on us, because a few Disaffected Per- 
sons have been sent under Guard to Kingston out of 
our Neighborhood. In any General Alarm, when 
the mihtia is Called forth in Defense of this State, 
the well affected men turn out, and the Disaffected 
Persons remain at home ; as witnesseth the late 
alarm in every such Case. Our Famihes and Ef- 
fects are greatly Exposed, for some of our mihtia 
Men are gone to Nepenak (Napanoch), some at 
Woodstock, and if more men Should be Continually 
Called, our Farming Business must be neglected, to 
the great Loss of this State, and we fear much, if 
we be not Timely assisted. Shall be obliged to flight, 
and leave our all to a Savage Enemie. 

Therefore, We, the Subscribers, most humbly 
approach your Excellency with this our humble 
Petition, imploring your Protection in Sending a 
Reinforcement of Fifty or Sixty men out of Dutch- 
ess County, and to Station them at the Blue Moun- 
tains, at and near Tobias Wynkoop's, for Such a 
Guard will be most handy, when Station' d as above 
said, either to reinforce the present Guard at Wood- 
stock, or assist us in time of need. 

Sir, we do not presume, to prescribe unto your 
Excellency how to protect this State, but knowing 
your Excellency's Mind can not at once be every- 
where, makes us approach you with these presents, 
not doubting your aid. 

Sir, That Divine Providence may bless and pro- 


long your Days and give Success to your Endeavours 
to Suppress our Savage Enemy, we Shall Ever pray. 

John Christian Fiero, Christian Will, Christian 
Fiero, Jeremiah Snyder, Yurry William Reghtmyer, 
Petrus Emrich, Jurry Hommel, Benjamin Snyder, 
Johannes Folck, John L. DeWitt, Capt. , Johannes 
Rechtmeyer, Peter Osterhoudt, Lu. , Ludwigh Roes- , 
sell, Ephraim Myer, Christian Fiero, Jr., Cornelius J 
DeWitt, Petrus Backer, Abraham Low, Jr., Stephen 
Fiero, John Langandyck, Christiaen Snyder, Peter 
T. Myer, Petrus Myer, Jacobus Whitaker, Jr., Jo- 
hannes Persen, Peter Myer, Jr., Cornelius Persen, 
Jacop Frans, Matthew Dederick, John Cox, Jr., 
Peter Eygener, Corn's Langendyck, William Emer- 
ich, Tunis Myer, Salomon Schut, PhiHp Feltan, 
Jacobus Dederick, Tunis Osterhoupt, Jury William 
Dederick, James Winne, William Falk, Willi' m De- 
Witt, Peter Eygener. 

May ye 15th, 1779. 

The Governor granted their request. A for- 
mer chapter told of the scouting during 1779 j 
by Capt. Jeremiah Snyder and Anthony Van- 
Schaick along the foot of the Catskills, and of 
the service of the detachment under Lieut. 
Peter Post in the same year. It also told of 
the terrible punishment visited on the savages 
by Sullivan's expedition, which destroyed their 
crops and villages. Although the next year 
(1780) Capt. Snyder and his son were seized 
and carried into captivity in Canada, there was 
no other molestation of the people of this 
town. Nevertheless, the regiment of Col. 
Snyder patroled this frontier until 1781. 



This old church is frequently called in early 
documents "de steene kerk op de Kats Baan," 
the stone church on the Kats Baan. What 
was the Kats Baan? To this there have been 
two answers. In the first entry made in the 
church records by Domine Mancius (who was 
a German) the name is spelled Kaatsbaan. 
Kaatsbaan is the Dutch word for tennis court, 
and many have held its derivation to have 
been that the church, which is upon a hill, 
stands upon the south end of a barren rock, 
almost level, which extends northwards for 
one-fourth of a mile. An active imagination 
may fancy this rock to resemble a tennis court 
on which Titans might play. There was a 
spot two hundred years ago between Kingston 
and The Strand (Rondout) which was called 
in deeds of that day by the same name, *' Kaats- 

The other derivation finds the root of the 
name with Katskill and Katerskill in the pan- 
ther, or wild cat, with which this densely 
wooded region was infested. As Katskill is 


the kill or creek of the wild cat, Katerskill the 
creek of the male of the species, so the Dutch 
words Kats and baan, a haunt, resort, course or 
range mean tlie haunt or resort of the animal. 
Around this baan, or haunt, the most majestic 
of white oaks flourished in which these terrible 
creatures had their home. 

When the Palatine colony came to the Camp 
in 1 7 10 they immediately built a church at 
West Camp. This was a church for the col- 
ony in which the services were conducted by 
both the pastors, Kocherthal, the Lutheran, 
and Hager, the Reformed. The people lived 
in peace and amity during the next ten years, 
and worshipped there. But a cause of dissen- 
sion had arisen. On Dec, 20, 1709, a month 
before the Palatines sailed from England, 
Hager had taken orders in the Church of Eng- 
land, being ordained by the Bishop of London, 
and upon his arrival at the Camp had en- 
deavored to introduce the ritual of the Angli- 
can Church in the worship of the colony. 
Kocherthal protested. But he died in 1719 
and Hager in 1721. The colonists had but 
occasional religious services for a year or two 
from Rev. Daniel F. Falckner and Rev. William 
C. Berckenmeyer, both Lutherans, when an- 
other Reformed clergyman appeared, Rev. 
John Jacob Ehle, or Oehl, a German, who also 
had taken orders before leaving London. He 



attempted to continue the efforts of Hager and 
remained among the people until about 1727. 
But the Germans did not take kindly to these 
attempts at conformity, and would have none 
of the ritual or liturgy. To what extent this 
caused them to be found worshipping "on the 
Kats Baan" in 1730 it is impossible to say. 
But Nov. 8, 1730, the records at Katsbaan be- 
gin in the handwriting of Rev. George Wilhel- 
mus Mancius, who signs himself in Dutch 
•'their at that time pastor." 

Who was Mancius? He was born in Nas- 
sau, Germany, 1706; was educated in Leyden 
University, Holland, and Herborn Theological 
Seminary in Germany, and sailed from Amster- 
dam to this country July 12, 1730, coming 
immediately to the Camp. The question why 
he came here to this town has never been 
answered. But reasons may be found. The 
Palatines upon the east side of the Hudson 
greatly desired a church of the Reformed faith, 
but could not obtain a minister. The Classis 
of Amsterdam, in Holland, would not permit 
an ordination in America, and candidates for 
the ministry were compelled to take the long 
voyage across the sea. John Van Driessen 
was ready to become the pastor at East Camp 
(Germantown), but unwilling to go to Holland 
for ordination. So he presented himself to a 
Congregational Association in Connecticut and 



laid before them documents which had been 
forged, upon which they ordained him to the 
ministry, and he assumed charge of the Pala- 
tine church of East Camp. When the Classis 
of Amsterdam heard of it they protested, but 
could do nothing. (See Chapter IX.) The 
writer is disposed to find a reason for the com- 
ing here of Mancius by the way of Holland in 
this matter in connection with the efforts of 
Hager and Ehle to Anglicize the Palatine 
church, taking account of the further fact that 
Mancius, a German, would naturally come to 
the place where the first German colony in 
New York had settled. 

- When Mancius appeared at West Camp he 
found most of the colony removed a mile or 
two west to the lands of the Kingston Com- 
mons, as stated in Chapter VII. There is no 
record or evidence of his organizing the church 
at Katsbaan. He speaks of 'Me germeente," 
or the congregation worshipping on the Kats- 
baan and says the churchbook is begun Nov. 
8, 1730, by himself, ''their at that time pastor." 
Where they worshipped, or in what building is 
not known, as the stone church was not erected 
until 1732. He became their pastor and con- 
tinued so until his death in 1762, with the 
exception of eight months during 1731-2 when 
he was the pastor in Schraalenberg, New Jer- 
sey. He was called to Kingston in May, 1732, 


to become associate pastor in the Reformed 
church with Rev. Petrus Vas and continued in 
charge of Katsbaan with his Kingston church 
until his death. 

The lease for the land upon which the stone 
church was built and a description of the 
church have been given in Chapter XL As 
stated in Chapter VII the Lutheran church at 
West Camp seems to have been virtually- 
abandoned from this time until 1765, after the 
death of Mancius, and the church of Katsbaan 
was the only place of worship between Kings- 
ton and Katskill (Leeds). The death of Man- 
cius in 1762 created a vacancy in the pastorate 
which was not filled until 1780. During this 
interval it was supplied by Domines Doll, of 
Kingston, Schuneman, of Katskill, and West- 
erlo, of Albany, who regularly administered 
the sacraments. Occasional services from other 
ministers appear from the church records. 

Rev. Lambertus DeRonde became the fourth 
pastor of the flock, of which we have reckoned 
Hager, Ehle and Mancius his predecessors. 
His pastorate began in 1780 and continued 
until 1786. How he was driven by the British 
from the Collegiate Church in New York city 
for his patriotism is told in Chapter XXVII. 
But this persecution gave to Katsbaan a faith- 
ful pastor. For seven years after 1786 the 
church stood without a pastor and was, as be- 


fore ministered to by Domines Schuneman and 
Doll until the conning of Rev. Petrus Van 
Vlierden in 1793 to be the fifth pastor. He 
came by way of the island of St. Croix in the 
West Indies, now just transferred from the 
sovereignty of Denmark to the United States. 
He had taken high honors at Leyden Univer- 
sity, and remained in the pastorate at Katsbaan 
for eleven years, or until 1804. The church 
was once more without a pastor until 1808, 
when for two years Rev. James D. Demarest 
served. Again pastorless until 18 12, Rev. Dr. 
Henry Ostrander was called and settled in May 
of that year, and continued for fifty years. 
This long pastorate brings down the story far 
beyond the limits of this work. 

A legend has been handed down by tradition 
through successive generations in the Katsbaan 
Church to this effect : After the Palatines came 
to the Camp, and the Lutherans and Reformed 
separated the question arose whether Katsbaan 
should be a German Reformed or Dutch Re- 
formed church. A meeting was called of which 
the presiding officer was Hans Martin Snyder. 
The argument that there would be no other 
German Reformed church with which to affili- 
ate, while all future growth would be from the 
incoming Dutch from Kingston prevailed, and 
the vote was a tie. Snyder gave the casting 
vote as president and as he was not fluent 


in Dutch he decided in favor of a " Neger 
Deutsche kerk" (Negro Dutch church), and 
not Neder Deutsche (Low Dutch), as he in- 

But there are difficulties in the way of this 
tradition. The name of Hans Martin Snyder 
does not appear among the Katsbaan church 
people until about 1770; there is no evidence 
that it was ever organized as a Dutch Reformed 
church at all; and while Mancius was here 
both Lutherans and Reformed worshipped in 
the stone church as in the church of the colony 
until 1762. The church never came under the 
supervision of the Dutch Reformed church 
until after 1773, as it was reported to Synod 
that year that it still "stood out ; " and was first 
reported under the jurisdiction of Synod in 
1784. If the traditionary incident ever occurred 
it must have been about 1780, and there was a 
Hans Martin Snyder at Katsbaan at that time. 
The meeting may have then and thus decided 
through its president in this ludicrous manner 
that Katsbaan become a Dutch Reformed 

A generation or two ago there was a story 
current at Katsbaan which showed the wit of 
Domine De Ronde. He did not reside in 
Katsbaan, but in what is now the village of 
Saugerties upon the present Dawes property. 
There was a time during his pastorate when 


his salary was greatly in arrears. One Sunday 
after preaching a most excellent discourse, as 
he came down from the pulpit, and took the 
hand of each one of the consistory in turn, one 
of the elders remarked in Dutch, " Well, 
domine, you have given us employment for a 
whole afternoon ; there is enough in the 
sermon we have just heard for a week's 
digestion." He replied, "Very well, then it 
will be on Sundays with you as upon every 
other day of the week ; you are filled to the 
full, and I, I have nothing from you but 
mauger zaagertjes (lean Saugerties)." 

The old church of 1732 remained unchanged 
until 181 5, except some minor improvements 
and a new floor in 1813. In 1815 the roof was 
taken off, the walls were raised, galleries were 
built on the east, west and south sides of the 
church, the pulpit was placed at the north side 
of the church, with a canopy above it, straight 
back pews were put in place of the former 
benches, the porch upon the east side was 
removed, two doors were inserted in the south 
wall and a steeple was erected in which a bell 
was hung. When all was done the seats were 
•distributed by lot. But even with these 
improvements the church could not hold the 
worshippers. When days were pleasant and 
weather favorable, the church was full to over- 
flowing and on summer days outside every 


open window were groups of listeners to the 
preaching of the Word of God. For from the 
Emboght and from Kiskatom, from Maiden 
and from Saugerties, from Blue Mountain and 
from Plattekill, the people gathered. Thus 
the building remained until 1867 when it was 
rebuilt as it is to-day. In 1841 the canopy 
and pedestal had been taken away and the 
steeple altered. 

The church was not incorporated until 
March 28, 1796, when its title became *'The 
Minister, Elders and Deacons of the Reformed 
Protestant Dutch Church of Kaatsbaan in the 
town of Kingston, in Ulster Country." When 
the town of Saugerties was organized in 181 1 
this title became a misnomer, and as the town 
grew and the consistory had charge of the 
religious interests of the whole town including 
Saugerties village, Blue Mountain, Maiden and 
Plattekill it was re-incorporated July 1 1, 1826, 
under the title ** The Minister, Elders and 
Deacons of the Reformed Dutch Church of 
the town of Saugerties." It has been said it 
was made "The Church of Saugerties," but 
actually, it had the comprehensive title just 
stated. When the division was made in 1839^ 
and Katsbaan became a new organization it 
was incorporated as " The Reformed Protest- 
ant Dutch Church of Cattsbane." But this 
title was not historically correct, and the con- 


sistory constantly erred in official papers. At 
last this was corrected by a re-incorporation 
April 4, 1892, as "The Reformed Church of 

In 1816 the residents of the present village 
of Saugerties petitioned for a house of worship 
in that village. The Katsbaan church respond- 
ed favorably, provided that the necessary funds 
were raised. Nothing resulted therefrom, and 
in 1 82 1 another petition was presented with a 
like reception and with the same result. In 
1826 a third petition was successful and the 
brick church was built, which was afterwards 
the Saugerties Academy and is now the George 
Burhans building on Livingston street. In 
1 83 1 the village of Saugerties was incorporated 
as the village of Ulster and the inhabitants, 
which were largely of other extraction than 
Dutch, made a determined and continuous 
effort to get rid of the name of Saugerties for 
that locality. The bank when incorporated 
was "The Bank of Ulster," the papers "The 
Ulster Palladium" (1828); "The Ulster Star" 
(1833) and "The Ulster Telegraph" (1846); 
the iron mill was "The Ulster Iron Works," 
and the lead mill "The Ulster White Lead 
Co.," and in every way possible the attempt 
was to rid the community of the Dutch name 
which seemed to mean nothing, and was 
thought to be of uncertain origin. This effort 


was finally abandoned in 1855 and the village 
was re-incorporated as the village of Sauger- 
ties. The conservative families of the town 
and village had continued to call the latter 
by the old name during all the prolonged at- 
tempt to foist the new one. 

On October ist, 1833, the classis of Ulster 
was petitioned by residents of the village of 
Ulster to divide the congregation, and on Jan. 
II, 1834, the application was made to the con- 
sistory for a separate organization in the village 
to be known as the Reformed Church of 
Ulster. This petition was denied. Few 
signers were of the Dutch membership, or ele- 
ment because of the fear that in a new church 
elements not Dutch would preponderate, and 
that at an early date an effort might be made, 
and be successful, to take the church into some 
other denomination. In denying the applica- 
tion the consistory remarked "Some are not 
members and others not of our denomination." 
It expressed a willingness to divide as soon as 
each could support a church. In 1835 another 
petition was presented, with one in opposition. 
In June of that year consistory met with a 
committee of the classis of Ulster to see if a 
division could be made, and a day was ap- 
pointed when the male members of the con- 
gregation should meet at the church in Kats- 
baan to vote on the proposition. Such a vote 


was taken and the division was disapproved of. 
In 1838 another petition of the inhabitants of 
the village of Ulster was denied. 

By this time it became evident that some- 
thing must be done in the matter. As these 
petitions came almost wholly from the elements 
in the church in the village of Ulster which 
were not Dutch the consistory felt more and 
more indisposed to grant their request. The 
result was that Katsbaan was influenced by 
the consistory and their pastor to be consti- 
tuted a new congregation. This would leave 
the Dutch element in Ulster as a balance of 
power in the church where they would not 
petition to be. But it would make the Ulster 
church the old organization, the church of the 
town of Saugerties legally, which it was not in 
history, nor in fact. It cost the people of the 
Katsbaan church many a feeling of sadness 
thus to give up the historic church of their 
fathers to those whom they felt to be in many 
things not in harmony with their origin. Very 
few of the families of the village of Ulster in 
1839 were of Palatine descent, the element 
there which was called Dutch being mostly of 
Holland lineage, while at Katsbaan nine-tenths 
of the Dutch families were of Palatine ances- 
try. These felt that they surrendered som.e- 
thing when they consented that the Palatine 
church, as an organization go to strangers. 



The development of the manufacturing in- 
dustries of this town is but a story of the last 
seventy-five years. But it will be of interest 
to speak of the history of such industries 
which preceded 1825. The name of the town 
came from the ** little sawyer" who had a mill 
at the mouth of the Sawyer's creek before 1670 
and two grist mills, respectively, upon the upper 
and lower falls of the Esopus, or particularly at 
Stony Point and about the site of the Martin 
Cantine Co., were built before 1725. The mill 
of the Posts, now owned by Martin Terwil- 
liger, is older than the Revolutionary war, but 
older than any was the grist mill on the south- 
ern border on the Plattekill at the bridge into 
the present town of Ulster. Still this mill 
was not, nor has it ever been, within the bor- 
ders of this town. 

When the Palatines landed at West Camp in 
1710 there was no grist mill in the town. The 
colony was fed by Robert Livingston, of the 
Manor, under contract with Gov. Hunter, from 
Livingston's mill on Roeloff Jansen's kill. 


Complaints were made as to the quality of the 
flour furnished, and a white-washing investiga- 
tion was made. But there is no disputing the 
facts that complaint was made by the colon- 
ists. Tradition in the family of the descend- 
ants of Christian Myer has always kept alive 
the following story : The wife of Christian 
Myer was Anna Gertrude Theunis, of a well 
born Palatine family reduced to destitution in 
the terrible wars in the Palatinate. When 
they came to the Camp she submitted to the 
trials and deprivations of the terrible first win- 
ter without complaint until at last, under the 
miserable quality of the flour furnished, her 
spirit broke down completely. Her husband 
had obtained some wheat somewhere, but there 
was no mill nearer than Twaalfskill, now Wil- 
bur, in the city of Kingston. Obtaining his 
consent, which, not thinking her in earnest, he 
gave one morning as he went to his task of 
preparing pines for the production of naval 
stores to release their obligations to the gov- 
ernment, she took a schepel of wheat (three- 
fourths of a bushel) in a bag and carried it on 
her shoulders through the woods all the long 
way from West Camp, by way of the Old 
Kings road to Wilbur, where it was ground, 
and back again the same day, arriving home 
after her thirty-four mile tramp exhausted, but 
conscious that she had flour fit for the table. 


It is worthy of remark that the industries of 
the town aside from grist and saw mills began 
along the Beaver creek. No other stream in 
the town pursues so many miles of course 
within its borders. It rises in a swamp on the 
farm of Larry Van Wart near the Blue Moun- 
tain church. Flowing south it reaches the 
valley of Unionville and makes use of this to 
reach the lowlands. Swinging a great circle it 
bisects the farm of Mrs. Germond and then 
upon a course due north it winds through a 
valley for about five miles until it flows into 
the Cauterskill at the Greene county line. 

To-day its windings can be traced by the 
many walnut trees upon its banks. Some 
twenty years ago a local poet wrote of it : 

^' Soft-flowing Beaver, by thy winding side 

I wander with the hours of passing day. 
Through thy pellucid depths and shallows glide 

The phantom forms of finny tribes at play. 
Umbrageous are thy banks; in close embrace 

The walnuts o'er thy bosom interlace; 
And in their mottled shade, by yonder spring, 

The circling swallow dips his restless wing. ' ' 

When the first mention is made of the region 
in the earliest land grants in 1685, it was 
already called the Beaver creek. Hunters and 
trappers had obtained their peltries for many 
years along its banks and from its beaver 
dams. As we pass in review the incipient in- 
dustries of the town we will follow the stream 


towards its mouth. The first claiming our at- 
tention, if not the earliest erected, was the mill 
at Unionville which was built by Adam Mon- 
tross in the earliest years of the last century 
for a grist mill. This subsequently passed into 
the possession of a man named Backus and 
then into the Van Hoesen family. From a 
grist mill it was made a plaster mill and finally 
dismantled has disappeared. Even the high 
dam is broken and the stream is unconfined. 

On the northern portion of the Wynkoop 
tract was the next industry. Here where now 
is the bridge leading over the Beaver to the 
house of Russell Wynkoop, was a hat factory. 
There are those still living who remember the 
stone benches within it where beaver skins 
were dressed. Judge Henry Wynkoop, who 
lived there seventy-five years ago, was called 
"The Hatter." The stone foundations of this 
factory are now the abutments of the bridge 
above named. Just north of the old hat fac- 
tory is a strong sulphur spring and there is 
another a mile north on the farm of Addison 


A few hundred yards north of this spring of 
Sax, a brick yard was in operation early in the 
past century. The brick in the erection of the 
store of Daniel Lamb in this village were from 
this brickyard. A little farther north, on the 
north side of the Maiden Turnpike, was the 


tannery of Cornelius Fiero. This remained 
there until within the past fifty years, and 
the vats were where is the present bed of the 
stream for, by a freshet after the tannery was 
demolished the raging waters cut through a 
new course which the line of vats made one of 
least resistance. 

Another grist mill was built in olden times 
on a branch of the Beaver where is now the 
residence of C. P. Finger and a saw mill on the 
same branch at the residence on the farm of 
William H. Hommel and in days long since 
another brickyard was in operation upon the 
farm of Abram E. Hommel. 

All of these have disappeared. Not a wheel 
is turned upon the Beaver to-day. No brick is 
made and so far as this stream is concerned 
tanning is a lost art. The little stream in its 
winding course of almost ten miles flows un- 
obstructedly and fed by never failing springs, 
waters the valley even in its droughtiest sea- 
sons recalling Tennyson's "Brook": 

'' For men may come and men may go, 
But I go on forever." 



When the Treaty of Peace between Great 
Britain and this country was at last in effect in 
1783 the interest and concern of the people of 
this town turned in the direction of the peace- 
ful pursuits of life. So far almost the sole 
occupation had been agriculture. The grind- 
ing of grain and the sawing of lumber were 
about the only work of mills. As the British 
had swept the river of what sloops there had 
been in 1777, river commerce had almost dis- 
appeared. A former chapter told of the pur- 
chase of the sloop of Capt. Benjamin Snyder 
during 1776 for a fire ship, and a subsequent 
one of the burning of two sloops in the Eso- 
pus at this village by Vaughan's marauding ex- 

Soon after the keel of another was laid by 
Capt. Snyder, and for some years it ran regu- 
larly to New York on monthly trips. Some 
time about the middle of the decade (1790- 
1800) Capt. Andrew Brink built a large sloop, 
which he named for a favorite sister, " The 
Maria." His father had instituted many years 


before the scow ferry which crossed the river 
from his door at the mouth of the Sawyer's 
creek to Chancellor Livingston's, just opposite, 
and the son was born with a love of the water. 
The Maria was thought by the people of those 
days a craft of wondrous size, and its owner 
immediately secured from the Chancellor the 
transportation of the products of his manor, 
and from other up-river towns a most profit- 
able trade. 

The captain of a Hudson river sloop before 
the advent of steam occupied a unique 
position. He was the link socially between 
the river towns and city life. He was the 
business agent not only of the merchant, but 
of the farmer. He selected the merchant's 
stock ; he sold the farmer's products ; he was 
the expressman ; he carried the news ; he 
matched the goods in the city from samples 
which the housewives of the river towns gave 
him ; bore the messages of friendship and bus- 
iness with which he was entrusted at each end 
of his route ; he was the welcome guest in the 
city families on which he called, to whom he 
told of their country friends, and through him 
the news of sorrow and bereavement of his 
patrons, or the tidings of their prosperity, 
were conveyed, for he often carried the writ- 
ten missives as postman, but more frequently 
he was intrusted with the verbal message 


which bore the tidings of a sad death or 
burial ; or was the happy messenger to 
announce a marital engagement of youthful 
lovers ; or he bore the gossip of the river 
village as he was asked to carry to city friends 
and relatives what had passed since the last 

When the boat arrived at the pier in the 
city and her lines were thrown the captain 
went ashore to deliver his messages from 
house to house and do his errands from store 
to store. With him went the ladies who had 
been confided to his care during the voyage 
and whom he delivered to their friends. 
When his errands were all done he set about 
drumming up a return cargo. The pur- 
chases for merchants and farmers made he 
would peradventure find the sloop not yet 
half laden. He must use his influence to 
secure some business ventures on the part of 
mercantile friends. Meanwhile days slipped 
by. The date of the return of the vessel was 
problematic. But when at last a satisfactory 
cargo was obtained, or in default when the 
captain decided that a cargo of grain and 
timber, or hay, or skins, or other products of 
the soil or chase could be more readily 
obtained up the river than one of goods in the 
city the captain gave the announcement that 
on a certain day the sloop would sail. It 


quickly circulated from mouth to mouth and 
when the appointed day and hour arrived 
there was a gathering on the pier that rivaled 
a modern farewell at the departure of a 
European steamer, and amid the fluttering of 
handkerchiefs and good-bye cheers the vessel 
dropped out from her pier into the stream. 

It was an Elysian delight to lie on deck on 
a summer day under the shadow of a sail and 
watch the transformation of the Highlands, or 
the lights and shadows of Catskill mountain 
scenes. But all days were not summer days, 
nor all days Elysian. There were voyages in 
storms of snow, or when ice was forming. 
There were days in late autumn when the hay 
from farms was loosely piled in a mighty stack 
on the deck of the craft. And then no fire 
must be built on the vessel, despite the dis- 
comfort. For no ardent mariner dared risk 
the danger, as baling hay was unknown and 
the idea of stoves was yet unborn. 

Once started on the voyage, the uncertainty 
of its duration was the most prominent fea- 
ture. A sloop setting sail on an afternoon 
might have reached her destination at Sauger- 
ties when her passengers awoke the next 
morning. And again, it might be becalmed 
before Spuyten Duyvil was reached, and be a 
week on the trip up the Hudson. And light 
winds often blew so gently that the travelers 


would go ashore in a small boat and buy 
butter, eggs or milk and regain the vessel a 
mile or two from where they left it. 

As stated above the sloop Maria carried 
much of the produce of Livingston Manor. 
And during the ten years Captain Brink sail- 
ed her, Livingston was a frequent ptissenger. 
He had been experimenting with steam before 
he went as Minister to France in 1801, and 
while there had been interested in the steam- 
boat that Robert Fulton had put on the Seine 
in 1804, and which had broken down. The 
men became very intimate and Fulton married 
a niece of the Chancellor. So he came to be a 
frequent and welcome guest at Clermont, the 
home of Livingston. 

In the cabin of the Maria the Chancellor 
and Fulton often discussed the problem of 
steam navigation as a quicker means of com- 
munication, and a more reliable power than 
wind, and around the captain's table talked 
over their plans, the obstacles encountered 
and the causes of their failures. They were 
now in the presence of a practical navigator, 
who had been on the water from boyhood and 
was in command of the fleetest of river craft 
built under his own supervision. Fulton was 
a man of great scientific knowledge for one of 
those days, and had many a mechanical inven- 
tion to his credit ; and Livingston to a pro- 


found knowledge of law and statecraft added 
a rare skill in mechanics, and besides was the 
possessor of one of the largest of American 
fortunes. On a voyage up the river the three 
decided to attempt once more to solve the 
problem and use every means to succeed. 
They went to work. Chancellor Livingston 
furnished the capital. Robert Fulton obtain- 
ed from Scotland a Watt engine of twenty 
horse power, with a copper boiler, which he 
adapted to his plans, while Captain Brink set 
about embodying his ideas as to what the 
craft should be from his experience as a navi- 
gator of the Hudson. The latter part of the 
year 1806, and until midsummer of 1807 were 
spent upon the boat and the engine, to the 
ridicule of many of the acquaintances of the 
captain in his own town. Even his own wife 
laughed at him to which he replied that he 
he would soon go to Albany in command of 
the steam craft and stop opposite his father's 
place on the river and take her along. All she 
could say was " when I see you and Mr. 
Fulton driving a boat with a tea kettle I will 
believe it." We will see how the captain's 
wife took her ride. 



The morning of August 3, 1807, was bright 
and warm. At a pier in the harbor of New 
York a vessel was lying which the events of 
that day were to make historic and the trip 
she was just to undertake would never be 
forgotten. A motive power would be utilized 
that day which would change the face of all 
the earth and would plow every sea. The 
power of millions of millions of horses would 
not be able to accomplish during the century 
then just begun what would be wrought by 
the force confined in what was derisively 
called *' a tea kettle." Fulton's copper boiler, 
bubbling and hissing at that North River pier 
that morning, seemed to be throbbing with a 
consciousness of its power and what it was to 
do when it would come to its birth. And all 
the material forces of modern civilization 
awaited a touch of a hand on a lever there 
that day to spring full-grown into being. 

The craft that was lying at the pier that 
morning in the early days of the Nineteenth 
Century would have excited the contempt of 


those who saw that century's close. A long 
narrow vessel with two masts on each of 
which was to be spread a sail ; a low cabin on 
each side of the deck ; somewhat forward of 
the center of the vessel a revolving wheel on 
either side with ten paddles like the arms of a 
wind-mill, and these unenclosed in a wheel 
house ; and on the pier a jeering crowd of 
spectators exchanging cheap witticisms with 
each other at the expense of Fulton and his 
associates on board, silent, but confident. 

When the appointed hour had arrived the 
vessel was cast loose, and the scofifing crowd 
became quiet, for they saw her paddles revolve 
and the boat worked its way out into the 
stream. Soon after reaching the middle of 
the river there was a break in the machinery 
which occasioned alarm, and which took some 
time to repair. This was duly accomplished 
and the vessel slowly proceeded up the Hud- 
son, and the crowd was quiet as the visionaries 
with their jeered-at boat propelled by a tea 
kettle passed out of sight. 

The trip excited great interest along the 
river and some alarm, especially at night, as it 
was thought to be a vessel on fire. Dry pine 
wood was used in the furnace and its light 
illuminated the sky for miles. The boat left 
the pier in New York at one o'clock in the 
afternoon of Monday, August 3rd, and reached 


Clermont (opposite Saugerties), the seat of 
Chancellor Livingston, at one o'clock, on 
Tuesday. The one hundred and ten miles 
had been covered in just twenty-four hours. 
Here the boat was anchored in mid-stream 
and Fulton went ashore to spend the night 
with Livingston, while Captain Brink, at his 
father's on the opposite bank, at the mouth of 
the Saw creek, came to redeem his promise 
and take his wife to Albany in the boat driven 
by a tea kettle. 

Anchor was raised on Wednesday morning 
at nine o'clock and Albany reached that after- 
noon at four so that the actual traveling time 
had been thirty-one hours. The next morn- 
ing at nine the return began and Saugerties 
was not made until six in the evening — nine 
hours. Here they anchored for the night and 
left for New York at seven on Friday morn- 
ing, which was reached at four that afternoon, 
or in nine hours, the whole return trip in 
eighteen hours of actual traveling. Both on 
the trip to Albany and upon the return the 
wind had been dead ahead and no benefit 
could be derived from the sails. 

It is a fact but little known that Fulton had 
named the craft " Experiment " and it was not 
until her return to New York and her paddle- 
wheels had been enclosed and cabins and 
other accommodations provided for carrying 


passengers that the name "■ Clermont " was 
substituted. By the latter name she has 
always been known. 

It is a striking comment on the lack of news 
enterprise in those days that the Albany jour- 
nals contained no notice of this trial trip. 
The vessel arrived in Albany on her second 
trip on Saturday, September 5th, 1807. The 
Albany Gazette of that date notes in an 
obscure corner of an extra, without flourishes ; 
'' The steamboat which left New York on 
Friday morning arrived at Albany on Satur- 
day, having twenty-four passengers on board." 
It left on Monday morning following with 
forty ladies and gentlemen as passengers. On 
October 1st following the New York Evening 
Post announced that the steamboat arrived 
from Albany with sixty passengers in twenty- 
eight hours. She left New York next day at 
ten o'clock against tide and a strong head 
wind, ran foul of a sloop eighteen miles up 
which tore away one of her paddle wheels, 
and after various detentions arrived in Albany 
on the evening of October 4th, at ten o'clock, 
with ninety passengers, having forced her way 
up against a constant wind with one paddle 

She was now put on the regular course to 
Albany for freight and passengers. The writer 
has in his possession the following letter of 


instructions written to his grandfather by 
Robert Fulton : 

New York, Oct. 9, 1807. 
Capt. Brink : — 

Sir — Inclosed is the number of voyages which is 
intended the Boat should run this season. You may 
have them pubhshed in the Albany papers. 

As she is strongly man'd and every one except 
Jackson under your command, you must insist on 
each one doing his duty or turn him on shore and 
put another in his place. Everything must be kept 
in order, everything in its place, and all parts of the 
Boat scoured and clean. It is not sufficient to tell 
men to do a thing, but stand over them and make 
them do it. One pair of quick and good eyes is 
worth six pair of hands in a commander. If the 
Boat is dirty and out of order the fault shall be 
yours. Let no man be Idle when there is the least 
thing to do, and make them move quick. 

Run no risques of any kind when you meet or 
overtake vessels beating or crossing your way. Al- 
ways run under their stern if there be the least 
doubt that you cannot clear their head by 50 yards 
or more. Give in the accounts of Receipts and ex- 
penses every week to the Chancellor. Your most 


The boat was advertised to sail from " Paul- 
er's Hook ferry (now Cortland Street Ferry), 
provisions, good berths and accommodations 
provided." For the first time in history travel 
on the Hudson river could arrange its journey- 
ings with regard to time. It was the begin- 


ning of the day of time tables for journeys by 
water. The schedule of rates was as follows: 


New York to Newburgh $3 oo i4h 

" *' *' Poughkeepsie ... 4 oo lyh 

'' *' '* Esopus (Kingston) . 5 00 2oh 

*' '* '* Hudson 5 50 3oh 

<* " *' Albany 7 00 36h 

It was proposed to accomplish three entire 
trips from Albany to New York and back in 
two weeks. On November 6th the boat car- 
ried over one hundred passengers. 

The Hudson Bee in June, 1808, contains 
this interesting description of the boat : ** The 
steamboat is certainly a curiosity to strangers. 
To see this large and apparently unwielded 
machine without oars or sails, propelled through 
the element by invisible agency at a rate of 
four miles an hour, would be a novelty in any 
quarter of the globe, as we understand there is 
none in Europe that has succeeded in the plan 
upon which this is constructed. The length 
of the boat is 160 feet, and her width in pro- 
portion so as not to impede her sailing. The 
machine which moves her wheels is called, we 
believe, a twenty-horse-power machine, or equal 
to the power of so many horses, and is kept in 
motion by steam from a copper boiler, 8 or 10 
feet in length. The wheels are on each side, 
similar to those of water mills, and are under 


cover; they are moved backwards or forwards, 
separately or together, at pleasure. Her prin- 
cipal advantage is in calms, or against head 
winds. When the wind is fair, light square 
sails, etc., are employed to increase her speed. 
Her accommodations, 52 berths, (besides sofas, 
etc.,) are said to be equal, or superior to any 
vessel that floats on the river, and are 
necessarily extensive as all the space unoccu- 
pied by the machinery is fitted in the most 
convenient manner. Her route between New 
York and Albany is a distance of 160 miles, 
which she performs regularly twice a week, 
sometimes in the short period of 32 hours, ex- 
clusive of detention by taking in and landing 
passengers. On her passage last week she left 
New York with 100 passengers, upwards, and 
Albany with 80 or 90. Indeed this aquatic 
stage, the Experiment, from Albany, together 
with the public sloop, the Experiment, of this 
city, bid fair to attach the greatest part of the 
travelers which pass the Hudson, and afford 
them accommodations not exceeded in any 
other part of the world." Thus the connection 
of this town with the introduction of steam 
navigation was vital and close. 



As the history of the town has been brought 
down to the opening years of the Nineteenth 
Century a glance at the development of the 
village of Saugerties may be of interest. 

In chapter X. it was shown that in 1763 but 
twelve, or strictly speaking, eleven houses were 
to be found on the north side of the Esopus 
within the corporate bounds of the village of 
Saugerties. To obtain this number the house 
of John Brink, Jr., at the mouth of Sawyer's 
creek, of Myndert Mynderse on the river and 
others had to be counted. So that in the 
closely built part of the village there were but 
six houses, namely: Those of Hiskia DuBois, 
John Post, Abraham Post, Jecobus Post, Isaac 
Post and Petrus Myer, Those occupied nearly 
the location of where are now the old Kiersted 
house, the Reformed Church parsonage, James 
Russell's store, the Dawes residence, a site 
under the hill west of the north end of Elm 
street, and the Sherwood D. Myer residence. 
The house of Johannes Myer on the site of the 
present house of J. M. Genthner might be added* 


The close of the Revolution in 1783 saw- 
little change in the village. About 1792 
Robert R. Livingston became a purchaser of 
lands hereabout, and in after years the Liv- 
ingston family owned considerable property 
here. When Henry Barclay began the manu- 
facturing interests in Saugerties in 1825 the 
Livingstons invested largely in real estate in 
this village. 

The present town of Saugerties had always 
been the northerly part of Kingston Commons, 
and thus part of the town of Kingston. But 
the lands belonging to the Kingston trustees 
had been sold off, or divided, about the year 
1804 and there was little need for the corpora- 
tion to continue. Besides dissensions arose 
among the trustees and complaints against 
them became frequent. They finally and per- 
manently dissolved December 13, 1816, after a 
corporate existence of one hundred and thirty 
years. The funds remaining in their hands 
were divided and assigned to the overseers of 
the poor of the towns of Saugerties, Esopus 
and Kingston, in which three towns the lands 
of the corporation lay. 

Previous chapters have spoken of the dis- 
puted questions of the boundaries of the town. 
The northern portion about Asbury was long a 
scene of strife between the town officials of 
Catskill and Kingston because the boundary 


line was indefinite. About 1746 this was de- 
termined. Then arose the question of the 
triangle bounded by the Hudson river, the Saw 
creek and the present Greene county line. 
This was what is now West Camp, Maiden 
and the adjacent territory. The inhabitants 
had to attend to all their civil duties as far from 
home as Albany and a forty mile drive over the 
miserable roads of those days and as many 
back occasioned much complaining. Finally 
the present boundary of Ulster county on the 
north from the Hudson westward was fixed in 
1767 and the triangle was annexed to this 
town. With the opening century it became a 
burden to transact all town affairs as far from 
home as Kingston and a separate town exist- 
ence was mooted. Almost a dozen years 
passed before this was effected. The town of 
Saugerties was incorporated April 5, 181 1, and 
on April 16 the first town meeting was held at 
the house of Christian Fiero (now Kaufman's) 
in Katsbaan at which John Kiersted was chosen 
supervisor; Capt. Andrew Brink town clerk; 
Benjamin Snyder and Hezekiah Wynkoop over- 
seers of the poor; Cornelius Wynkoop, John 
T. Schoonmaker and Samuel Post assessors; 
Peter P. Post, Jonah Valck and Abraham 
Wolven commissioners of highways ; and Elisha 
Snyder collector. By successive elections Capt. 
Andrew Brink was continued town clerk for 


the next ten years and had his office at the 
store of his father-in-law, Cornelius Persen, in 
Katsbaan, as Capt. Brink had retired from the 
command of the steamboat Clermont, had de- 
clined the offer of Livingston and Fulton to 
move to Albany and act as the Albany agent 
of their steamboat line, and had taken charge 
of Persen's store. 

The town was laid out in twenty-nine road 
districts upon organization, and the present 
bounds of such districts largely follow the old 
establishment both in the number of the dis- 
trict, its limit and the feature natural or arti- 
ficial which bounds it. 

At the incorporation of the town in i8il 
the following' families were living in the pres- 
ent village of Saugerties : Jacobus Post was 
living under the Canoe Hill ; John Post on 
what is now the corner of Market street and 
Ulster avenue (the Jeremiah Russell place) ; 
Peter Post on the Dawes property; Abraham 
Post where is now the James Russell store, 
and in the building now in the rear of that 
store and which was then the village tavern ; 
Cornelius Post where was lately the Gustave 
Peters saloon on Partition street ; Petrus 
Myer where Sherwood D. Myer now lives ; 
Abram Myer where J. M. Genthner lives ; Peter 
I. Post on the Fosmyre place on Main street ; 
Tjerck Schoonmaker on what is now the site 


of the Whitaker building on Main street ; 
John Burhans on the opposite corner where 
the Davis shoe store stands ; Andrew McFar- 
lane where is now the Zeigler saloon on Parti- 
tion street ; Luke Kiersted in the old Kiersted 
house on Main street ; Peter Schoonmaker at 
the corner of Main street and Maiden avenue 
where the late Peter P. Schoonmaker lived ; 
James Brink on the Brink homestead on the 
river ; Garret Mynderse in the old stone house 
at the river now the residence of F. T. Rus- 
sell ; Isaac Post in the old stone house on the 
dock near the mouth of the Esopus ; Henry 
Heermance, who taught the village school, 
lived on Partition street below the Phoenix 
hotel; Samuel Schoonmaker on the Finger 
place on Market street ; while Asa Bigelow, 
who had come to Saugerties from Connecticut 
in 1807, lived and kept store on the site of 
Russell Block. 

Farther north were two small houses owned 
by Alexander McKenzie, one of which burned, 
while the other was afterwards long the home 
of Joel T. Persons. The only other house was 
that of Samuel Wolven east of the Canoe Hill, 
where is now the place of James O. Beers. 
Thus in 181 1 there were but twenty-one houses 
in this village north of the Esopus, and this 
was but an increase of nine from the twelve 
found here in the spring of 1763, forty-eight 


years before. But the progress was to be more 
rapid in immediately succeeding years, even 
before the boom came in 1825, with the com- 
ing of Henry Barclay. 

The town was but a year old when the war 
of 1812 broke out. Four years before a mili- 
tary company had been formed in the town 
which was known as ** The Rangers." It main- 
tained its organization for thirty years. Cap- 
tain John Clark, its commander, moved from 
the town in 181 1, and the first lieutenant, Luke 
Kiersted, removed to Durham, Greene county; 
Abraham Post, the ensign, went to Ontario 
county in 181 1, leaving the company under the 
command of the orderly sergeant, Peter Post. 
Then Captain Peter Elmendorf was placed in 
command, with Peter Post first lieutenant. 
The company was ordered to Plattsburg, 
where they served three months. Another 
company was formed from this town and 
Woodstock, of which William Osterhoudt died 
in the service ; Daniel E. DuBois was killed in 
a sortie at Fort Erie, and Alexander McKen- 
zie died in the service. The others who served 
from this town were of the garrison on Staten 
Island and were the following: — Andrew 
Brink, James Brink, Francis Brown, John H. 
Coon, Philip Carle, John H. Carr, Tjerck Bur- 
bans, Andrew DeWitt, Jr., John I. Decker, 
Egbert Dederick, John H. DuBois, Jeremiah 


DuBois, Peter Elmendorf, Cornelius Fiero, 
Joshua Fiero, Peter M. Fiero, Peter Freligh, 
Valentine Freligh, John Hendrick, Cornelius 
Hoff, Thomas Holland, Abraham Hommel, 
Andrew Hommel, Isaac Hommel, John A. 
Hommel, Matthew Hommel, Levi Hommel, 
Solomon Hommel, Thomas A. Houghtahng, 
Henry Hovenburg, Alexander Ingram, Jacob 
I. Kipp, Frederick Krows, James Kortz, 
Solomon Lewis, William Low, fifer ; Peter A. 
Low, William Lasher, Adam Moose, Benjamin 
C. Myer, Jonathan C. Myer, Peter D. Myer, 
Simeon Myer, Tjerck Myer, Isaac Myer, John 
A. Myer, Jacob Mauterstock, Benjamin Over- 
bagh, Garret Post, Abraham I. Post Abram 
Post, Victor Post Samuel Raymond, John 
Rightmyer, Robert Schoonmaker, Egbert 
Schoonmaker, Joseph Schutt, John Shute, Jr., 
George J. Sitzer, Alexander Snyder, EHsha 
Snyder, Martin Snyder, Jeremiah Snyder, Joel 
Snyder. Noah Snyder, Peter I. Snyder, Zach- 
ariah Snyder, Jacob Staats, Henry Stewart, 
Moses Schutt, Jeremiah Teetsell, drummer; 
John Teetsell, Peter VanKeuren, Jonas Van- 
Etten, Peter VanVlierden, Jacob Valck, Moses 
Valck, Aaron Vedder, Peter P. Whitaker, 
Peter L. Winne, Peter P. Winne, William 
Winne, Andrew Wolven, Evert H. Wyn- 
koop, Henry Wynkoop, Admiral Warren, 
Gunn Watts, and Henry VanHovenberg. But 


the service of those from this town was but 
short as the theatre of war was not in this 
vicinity, and the latter part of the conflict was 
on the ocean so largely, and the later military 
operations were around Washington and New 

Before this chapter is concluded mention 
should be made of the coming to this town of 
Rev. Dr. Henry Ostrander in 1812 to become 
pastor of the church of Katsbaan. Here he 
continued for fifty years, or until 1862. He 
was intellectually the most gifted man, prob- 
ably, who ever resided in the town and his 
influence was very great, especially during the 
early years of his residence. Through his 
efforts a library was established in 1814 which 
consisted of about seven hundred volumes, 
covered with leather, and which was called 
"The Saugerties Library." It was kept in 
Katsbaan and some volumes of it were in 
existence as late as 1895. It was largely of 
historical works and travels, with volumes of 
adventure and such works as the " Spectator." 
Comparatively little fiction was in the library. 



With its incorporation as a town in 1811 
Saugerties began to grow. At that date the 
village, as was shown in the last chapter, had 
added to its numbers but about nine houses 
since 1763, or in about forty-eight years, and 
the rest of the town had advanced but little as 
well. Until 1807 there had been only two 
churches in town, the Lutheran at West Camp 
and the Reformed in Katsbaan. The West 
Camp church had had intermittent pastor- 
ates before 1800, and during the existence of 
the Katsbaan church from 1730 to 1812 there 
had been at various times no less than thirty- 
two years of dependence upon occasional ser- 
vices of such ministers as could be obtained to 
administer the sacraments and preach as 
opportunity was afforded. The Reformed 
church of Flatbush had been organized in 1807 
and had increased the number of the churches 
of the town at its organization to three. In 
May, 1 8 12, Rev. Dr. Henry Ostrander was 
called to become the pastor of the Church of 
Katsbaan. He was immediately an intel- 


lectual and moral force in the town. Within 
three years he had rebuilt the church in Kats- 
baan ; had begun religious services at Sauger- 
ties, using for the next fourteen years the ball- 
room of the hotel of Frederick Krows ; had 
begun services at Plattekill in conjunction 
with the pastor of the Flatbush church, and 
was conducting like services at Blue Moun- 
tain, Saxton, Maiden and elsewhere. He 
organized the first Sunday school in the town 
in 1818; he started a town library of seven 
hundred volumes in Katsbaan in 1814 and 
almost as soon as he came into the town 
agitated the question of a classical school. 
That year (1812) witnessed the organization of 
the State system of district schools. Under it 
the town was divided into twelve school dis- 
tricts. Dr. Ostrander earnestly desired that a 
classical school be formed to give an advanced 
education. His wishes were not destined to 
an immediate realization. But such a school 
was organized in Maiden in the early 30's and 
was conducted by Merritt Bradford, of Connec- 
ticut. It preceded the organization of the 
Saugerties Academy, which was instituted 
about 1855 when the congregation moved from 
the old brick church into the present Reformed 
Church in this village. While speaking of this 
church it is worthy of remark that services in 
Dutch were never held there. At the old 


stone church in Katsbaan none other were 
held until the pastorate of Domine Van Vlier- 
den closed in 1804. With the coming of Dem- 
arest in 1808 English services began and when 
Dr. Ostrander became pastor in 1812 he alter- 
nated the services between the two languages. 
When he began to preach in Saugerties in the 
ball-room of Frederick Krows he did so in 
English, with occasional Dutch, leaving those 
who desired Dutch preaching to have it at 
Katsbaan. As the older generation died less 
and less was had until in 1825 it ceased alto- 
gether. After that date Dr. Ostrander held an 
occasional Dutch service, but it was usually at 
a school house in the outlying parts of his con- 
gregation on a Sunday afternoon. The last 
Dutch sermon in the town of Saugerties was 
preached at the Blue Mountain church about 
1886 by its pastor, the Rev. Abram G. Lansings 
and was thoroughly enjoyed by his many 
parishioners who were able to understand it, 
as well as by many from surrounding congre- 
gations. It is an interesting question if an 
audience of three hundred could be gathered 
from our town population of ten thousand 
to-day who could understand a sermon in 
Dutch, even if it were in the colloquial dialect 
spoken as late as 1850. 

To what was said above concerning the or- 
ganization of schools it should be added that 


from the very first settlement of the town the 
education of the young was attended to. One 
of the earliest of these chapters told how the 
Palatines of 17 lo built a school house even be- 
fore they built dwellings for themselves. And 
our glimpse in former chapters of the conditions 
of things in 1763 showed school houses in 
every settled locality within our borders. It 
was there noticed that when the educational 
act of 1812 went into force the trustees of the 
Katsbaan district (No. 6) received from the 
school board of that place a deed for the school 
house and site, and ever since the school has 
been conducted an that spot where for years 
before the youth had been trained ; and it 
should be noticed that when the Kingston 
Academy, which had been founded in 1774, 
was incorporated in 1795, the third name of 
incorporators in the list was that of the Rev. 
Petrus Van Vlierden, pastor of the Katsbaan 

From its formation as a town Saugerties be- 
gan to be actively alive. The last chapter 
spoke of Asa Bigelow as a resident of the vil- 
lage and keeping store where is now Russell 
Block. He had begun the shipment of the 
produce of the town to New York markets. 
But ingress and exit by the Esopus creek, 
which was full of sand bars, was very uncer- 
tain, and in 18 13 he removed to Bristol (now 


Maiden), where he had purchased a village site 
of the Wolven heirs in 1808 and built a frame 
store. In 18 14, with Samuel Isham, he built 
the brick store so long known as ''The Isham 
Store," and four years later the stone store, 
now the of^ce of the Bluestone Company. 
Thus before 1820 the village of Maiden had 
entered upon its prosperous career, and was to 
become the chief centre of the bluestone in- 
dustry when the immense quarries would be 
discovered during the next decade. To the 
Wolven lands Bigelow had added by purchase 
in 1813 a part of the Schutt patent, so that the 
growing village had an unrestricted oppor- 

Although Bigelow withdrew from Saugerties 
village in those early years of the town to 
found Bristol, or Maiden, others came to take 
his place. In the spring of 1814, Jeremiah 
Russell, who had been keeping a country store 
in Asbury, removed to Saugerties and engaged 
in the business of a merchant and forwarder, 
shipping to New York large quantities of wood, 
tan bark, staves and lumber. He built a num- 
ber of sloops, and contiuued in business until 
1833, when, disposing of it to his son, William 
F. Russell, he became a private banker. 
George A. Gay also engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits in those earlier years and continued a 
merchant on the site of the present " Corner 


Drug Store " until he was elected county clerk 
in 1840. 

Nor were these the only centres of business 
in the town before 1820. Aside from Persen's 
store in Katsbaan, which had been the prin- 
cipal one for fifty years, and the store at As- 
bury, of which mention has been made, about 
1820 William Adams opened one at West 
Camp, and for ten years Glasco had been 
growing into notice. About the time of the 
organization of the town a company had been 
formed for the manufacture of glass in Wood- 
stock, and it was known as " The Woodstock 
Glass Company." Although their factory was 
not within the bounds of the town of Sauger- 
ties, their shipments were made across it. The 
company built its docks on the Hudson below 
Saugerties and built a road from the river to 
Bristol, in the town of Woodstock. This road 
has ever since been known as " The Glasco 
Turnpike." Upon its storehouse on the river 
was painted in large letters ** The Glass Co. 
Store House," and by dropping the final'' s " 
from the name the locality became known as 
Glasco. The company had hard sledding from 
the first. Dissensions arose, the transporta- 
tion of raw material and finished products over 
more than ten miles of very rough and hilly 
roads cost more than the advantage of unlim- 
ited fuel for the furnaces was worth, and the 


company became loaded with debts. On the 
17th of August, 1 816, Isaac Honfield recovered 
judgment against the glass company for $76,- 
018.56, and an execution seized the property. 
Despite the litigation an effort was made for 
years to keep the enterprise going. At last the 
burdens became so heavy that its life was 
crushed out, leaving no memorials of it but a 
local n^me for a road and for a village. The 
latter has been perpetuated by the inexhaust- 
ible deposits of blue clay for the manufacture 
of brick. Here uncounted millions have been 
made each year for more than half a century. 

There remains one other event of the decade 
ending 1820, which requires our notice. It is 
the incorporation of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Saugerties. A certificate was filed 
bearing date August 12, 181 5, but the church 
does not seem to have been organized until the 
the spring of 1828, when the lot on which the 
church now stand was bought of Henry Bar- 
clay on March 19, for $200, During the next 
year the church was built. 

The date of the first Methodist services in 
the town is not as clear as it might be. The 
Rev. John Crawford, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, who came from Westchester county, is 
said to have preached in a barn which stood 
near the Exchange hotel in the village of Saug- 
erties, as early as 1794, and also to have held 


services in Asbury as early as 1800. From 
these dates services were occasionally and 
sometimes frequently held in private houses, 
with camp meetings annually in various parts 
of the town down to the year when the incor- 
porating certificate was filed. Whatever the 
date of the first Methodist services, the Meth- 
odist Church of the town, so strong in num- 
bers and influence in our day, may properly be 
said to have begun in the decade under con- 
sideration in this chapter. 



In the last chapter we considered the growth 
of the town from its organization in i8ii 
through the first decade of its existence. That 
growth was rapid and steady. But the second 
decade was to witness a boom. This had two 
causes— the beginning of manufacturing and 
the opening of bluestone quarries. 

Petrus Burhans and others conveyed to John 
Brink and Robert R. Livingston, under date 
of December i, 1790, about one hundred and 
five acres of land on the north side of the 
Esopus in the village of Saugerties. The in- 
terest of Brink therein was sold to Liv- 
ingston January 26, 1792, and October i, 
1806. Thus Robert R. Livingston became a 
landholder here and his holdings were increased 
until about 1820 he owned a large portion of 
the north side of the Esopus. 

On the first day of September, 1825, the 
founder of the village and its industries ap- 
peared. Henry Barclay that day purchased 
for $7,000 of Tjerck Schoonmaker, Jr., and 


Jane, his wife, one hundred and fifty acres of 
land. Four months later, January i, 1826, 
he completed his scheme by purchasing of 
Robert L. Livingston for $28,250, forty-eight 
and one-fourth acres on the north side of the 
creek, a small tract on the south side and ten 
acres on an island in the Esopus called " Per- 
sen's Island." Barclay had now both sides of 
the stream, including the lower falls and the 
upper at Stony Point. He constructed a dam 
on the lower falls, cut the raceway through the 
rocks, and began to build the iron mill and the 
paper mill. The foundations for both these 
enterprises did not await the purchase of the 
Livingston property, but began in 1825 in the 
same month in which Barclay secured the land 
of Schoonmaker. In 1827 the Ulster Iron 
Company was formed and took possession of 
the iron mills in that year. John Simmons 
signed a contract with the company April 18, 
1828 as manager. Some attempts had already 
begun at iron making, but Simmons remodeled 
the furnaces, and in the autumn of 1828 oper- 
ations started in earnest. For sixty years this 
mill was the principal industry of this town. 
It is not purposed in this history to tell the 
story of the iron mill. The writer would only 
call attention to the quality of the iron made 
by an incident of the year 1840. The Navy 
Department desired chain cable of iron of ten- 


acity disproportionate to the size of the iron it 
was proposed to use. A test was ordered, and 
the links were to be made of iron two and one- 
eiehth inches in circumference. It was made 
in the Washington navy yard, with President 
Young, of the Ulster Iron Company, present. 
The cable stood the test. He then asked that 
it be subjected to twice the strain. It stood 
this. He then requested a greater strain. 
The officials demurred that it would break the 
chain. Mr. Young insisted, saying that he 
would risk the chain if they would the ma- 
chine. They consented, and the test was 
applied. The links were drawn together until 
the chain resembled a solid bar of iron, and 
finally the machine broke down under the 
terrific force. The naval officials hung up the 
chain as a specimen of the iron America could 

With the building of the iron mill Barclay 
had laid the foundation for the paper mill, 
which was put in operation in October, 1827. 
Upon the death of Barclay in 185 1 it passed 
into the hands of J. B. Sheffield & Co. This 
book is not to tell the history of the paper 
mill, which continued to turn out an increased 
product until^it suspended, more than sixty 
years later. As an element in the growth of 
the town it ranks next to the manufacture of 


Three years later, in 1830, Isaac McGaw 
erected a building for the manufacture of 
calico prints on the north side of the Esopus, 
and below the falls, paying Henry Barclay a 
rental of $850 a year for the water privilege. 
It was never used for the purpose, and in 1835 
Charles Ripley bought and enlarged the works 
and began the manufacture of white lead. 
This was continued until after the beginning 
of the civil war of 1861-65, when the works 
were abandoned. In this connection the white 
lead works at Glenerie should be mentioned, 
which were also begun in 1835 and were finally 
closed only with the absorption of the Ulster 
White Lead Company into the lead trust. 

With these industries, whose motive power 
was derived from the almost exhaustless 
power of the falls in the Esopus, the town 
grew into the most active and prosperous 
place in the Hudson river valley. The village 
was chartered as the village of Ulster in 1 831, 
and continued as such until 1855, when it was 
re-incorporated as the village of Saugerties. 
The scope of this work will not cover the 
organization of the banks, fire companies, the 
origin of the steamboat lines, etc., of the town. 
These have followed the enterprise we have 
mentioned as such always follow. We are 
compelled to deal only with the origin of what 
distinctively made the town of Saugerties, 


pausing solely to speak of the press. The 
first paper published in Saugerties was the 
Ulster Palladium, by P. J. Fish and C. Frary 
in 1828. The second was the Ulster Star, in 
i833» by William Cully. Both died in their 
infancy. The third, the Ulster Telegraph, by 
Solomon S. Hommel in 1846, is still published 
as the Saugerties Telegraph. 

Here we must notice the tanning industry 
which was largely carried on across the town 
during the first half of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, but which was not located distinctively 
within the town except the tannery of Peter 
B. Myer in this village, and the Shaler tannery 
at West Saugerties. All this has passed away 
with the passing of the hemlock forests. Also 
just speak of the manufacture of powder on 
the Plattekill and Cauterskill by the Laflins, 
although the latter mill was just over the 
county line. Nevertheless the powder was 
shipped through Saugerties. This industry 
was established in Fish Creek by Matthew 
Laflin in 1832 and developed into the great 
Laflin & Rand Powder Company. The bus- 
iness was finally removed from the town in 


The story of the town includes the dis- 
covery and development of the blue stone 
quarries. Silas Brainard came to this town in 
1 83 1 to build for Henry Barclay a bridge over 


the Esopus in tliis village. He heard of the 
opening of a flagging-stone quarry at Coey- 
mans, and went to investigate. He found the 
stone to be the same as he had seen cropping 
out on the farm of John Valkenburgh at 
Unionville. Returning to town he purchased 
twenty acres of Valkenburgh for $2,000 and 
opened a quarry. The following year his 
nephew, Nelson Brainard, purchased the 
remainder of the Valkenburgh farm, and 
engaged in the business. Meanwhile Elisha 
Parks had found the same blue flagging-stone 
at Quarryville, and the industry rapidly 
extended. This town became the centre of 
the business in the United States, and from 
Maiden alone more than $1,000,000 of dressed 
blue stone was shipped per annum for years. 

A large industry to-day is brick making. 
Its development within forty years at Glasco 
has been enormous. Preceding chapters have 
spoken of this and of the earlier yard on the 
Beaver creek. 

We have considered the nationalities of the 
first settlers. The earliest comers were the 
Dutch, with a few Huguenot families and one 
or two English. In 1710 the Palatine colony 
at West Camp brought in a preponderance of 
Rhineland Germans. More families of Eng- 
lish descent came in during the next one hun- 
dred years from New England, but at their 


close in 1811, when the town was organized, 
the proportion was practically the same. In 
the decade beginning with the coming of 
Henry Barclay in 1825, a great change came 
over the town as strong immigration affected 
its population. Many English iron-makers 
settled here, and many Irish. But far more 
of the latter came when the quarries were 
opened and Quarryville was settled. The lead 
mills brought many Germans from elsewhere 
in Germany than the Palatinate, and less akin 
to the Dutch. The making of brick in recent 
years has added hundreds of Italians. So that 
to-day it is probable that the descendants of 
the original Dutch and Palatines are not one- 
half of the population. 

The last chapter said that in 181 1 there 
were no churches in town, but the Reformed 
at Katsbaan and Flatbush and the Lutheran 
at West Camp. And it told of the organiza- 
tion ot the Methodist church in 18 15 in this 
village. During the '20's the Methodist church 
at Asbury was built. Before 1840 the influx 
of new elements of population had called for 
the organization of Trinity Episcopal in Sau- 
gerties in 1831 ; St. Mary's Catholic in Sau- 
gerties in 1832; the Baptist in Saugerties in 
1833 ; the Presbyterian in Maiden in 1834; the 
Reformed in Plattekill in 1838; and the sep- 
aration of the original Reformed congregation 


into Katsbaan with the stone church there, 
and that of Saugerties in the village of Ulster 
with the brick church which had been built in 
1827. This division was made in 1839. Many 
other churches have been incorporated since 
that day, but later than the period under con- 
sideration. The consecutive story of the 
origin and development of the town of Sau- 
gerties has been as closely covered as the 
scope of this work will permit it and it has 
been brought down to a date late enough to 
take in all the elements that have entered into 
the making of the town. 



Among the names of the leaders of the 
patriots of the Revolution in Ulster county 
there is none shining with a brighter lustre 
than that of Colonel Johannis Snyder, who 
commanded the First Ulster Regiment during 
the war. The public services of George Clin- 
ton, James Clinton and Charles DeWitt have 
received recognition, but little has been said 
of those of Colonel Snyder. There are a few 
allusions to his services in some of the papers 
of The Ulster County Historical Society and 
in Sylvester's History of Ulster County, and 
Schoonmaker's History of Kingston speaks 
of him at some length. Most of what has 
been published is based upon the paper on 
'' Vaughan's Expedition," read before the 
historical society by Col. George W. Pratt, 
October i6, i860. This paper states that " na 
descendant of Col. Snyder remains in Kings- 
ton," which was an error that has been per- 
petuated by speakers and writers ever since,, 
for a number of families in that city are 
descended from him, and many in this town. 


Colonel Johannis Snyder was a son of 
George Snyder and Christina Theunis, his 
wife, and was born in what is now the town of 
Saugerties, January 4th, 1720. George Snyder 
was one of the Palatines who settled at West 
Camp. He removed to Kingston. Here for 
forty years, and up to the time of his death 
the colonel served as justice of the peace and 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. 

This sketch is especially concerned with the 
military record of Colonel Snyder. The ap- 
pointment, in August, 1775, of George Clinton 
as brigadier-general, occasioned deep feeling 
among the officers of the Northern Regiment 
of Ulster county, and they united in a protest 
against being superseded. Various attempts 
to settle were unsuccessfully made. Finally 
the First Regiment was officered, on May i, 
1776, with Colonel Snyder as colonel. It re- 
ported 472 officers and men. In April of that 
year he had been elected Delegate to the Pro- 
vincial Congress and the regiment was not 
called to active service until Sept. i, 1776, after 
the battles of Long Island and Harlem had 
put the British in possession of New York 
city. He was then directed to proceed to 
Fort Montgomery in the Highlands, opposite 
Anthony's Nose, to take command of The 
Levies. Here he arrived September 27. The 
three months for which his regiment had been 


called out expired November 30, and as offen- 
sive operations by the British during the winter 
were impossible the regiment of Colonel Sny- 
der returned home at the end of its term of 

On May 5th, 1777, a great excitement was 
occasioned in Kingston by the act of Colonel 
Snyder in taking into custody Charles DeWitt, 
a member of the Convention which formed the 
first constitution of this State. The name of 
Charles DeWitt had been included in a list of 
delinquents in serving in the militia, and who 
had not furnished a substitute. By the orders 
of Colonel Snyder all such were taken into 
custody. DeWitt claimed exemption because 
of his position as member of the Convention. 
The Convention sided with him and reported 
that Colonel Snyder was ** guilty of a high 
breach of the privilege of the Convention." 
He was ordered before it, but did not go. 
General George Clinton wrote a long letter 
defending Colonel Snyder and the matter was 
dropped. His regiment is shown by the Clin- 
ton papers, just published, to have been at 
Fort Montgomery as early as June 4th of this 
year (1777) under his command until the or- 
ganization of the State government July 30, 
1777, when Colonel Snyder took his seat as 
Member of Assembly in the first legislature 
chosen in the new State. To this office he was 


repeatedly re-elected and sat as such in the 
legislatures of 1777, 1778, 1786, 1787 and 1791. 

The year 1777 was the most momentous in 
the history of this State. It was at the darkest 
hour of the Revolution and the commonwealth 
was struggling to the birth. On the north 
Burgoyne was preparing to cut the revolting 
colonies in twain along the line of the lakes 
and the Hudson. On the south Howe and 
Sir Henry Clinton were preparing to co-oper- 
ate, and all the energies of the patriots were 
aroused to defend the northern frontier and 
the passes of the Hudson. Colonel Snyder's 
activity was untiring. He was at the head of 
his regiment in the Highlands ; he was assigned 
by Gen. George Clinton to almost every court- 
martial convened to try Tories who were active 
everywhere, and whom our troops were seizing 
on every hand ; he was a member of the Coun- 
cil of Safety ; he was Member of Assembly and 
in all these capacities, executive, legislative 
and judicial his strong common sense made 
him easily first. None could be more energetic 
than he when action was required, and none 
more calmly poised when conflicting evidence 
was to be weighed and decided on, and the 
opinion of none was more highly esteemed as 
measures were to be proposed for enactment 
into laws. 

As before stated, Colonel Snyder left his 


regiment to meet the first legislature, and after 
its prorogation to serve on the Council of 
Safety it appointed. For Gov. Clinton had 
prorogued the Legislature in view of the ap- 
proach of the British. So Colonel Snyder was 
at Kingston when Gen. Vaughan landed to 
destroy it. Gov. Clinton had written to the 
colonel committing to him its defense. But 
with what ? He could find but five small can- 
non and no troops. They were either with 
Governor Clinton defending the Highlands, or 
at Saratoga facing Burgoyne. All told, in- 
cluding old men and boys, not one hundred 
and fifty, and these poorly armed responded to 
his call. Colonel Snyder threw up a hasty 
earthwork at Ponckhockie, and one near the 
present site of the City Hall and planted his 
toy cannon. But the British, numbering about 
2,000, soon drove away the defenders. The 
story of the destruction of Kingston is so fa- 
miliar that it need not be told here. 

After Governor Clinton withdrew to New 
Windsor and the Highlands with his forces 
Colonel Snyder was left here in charge of the 
remaining troops until he went to Poughkeep- 
sie to meet with the Legislature, Jan. 5, 1778. 

As spring approached the people of Kingston 
began to take measures to rebuild the settle- 
ment. But they needed assistance. The story 
is familiar of the noble contribution made by 


Charleston, S. C, and the help of Robert R. 
Livingston. The official assistance received is 
less so. Governor Clinton assigned Colonel 
Snyder and a part of his regiment to Kingston, 
and he energetically took hold of the work 
with the men of his detachment. 

Things assumed new life and energy when 
the colonel directed them and the town rap- 
idly arose from its ruins. But new tasks 
awaited Colonel Snyder. The battle of Oris- 
kany in August, 1777, and the bloody slaugh- 
ter of the Indians who ambushed the patriot 
troops on that hard-fought field aroused the 
savages to vengeance. Everywhere the settle- 
ments on the frontier suffered greatly during 
the next three years. Wyoming, Cherry Val- 
ley and Minisink are witnesses to the cruelty 
of the fiendish foe. It is to the credit of Col. 
Snyder that no descent was made in Ulster, 
county upon the exposed settlements. Gov- 
ernor Clinton committed the defense of its 
north-west frontier to him as he committed 
the south-west to Colonel Cantine. The ene- 
mies were not the Indians alone. More blood- 
thirsty than all were the Tories who were liv- 
ing all around among the patriots. While 
with his regiment in the service during the 
years 1776 and 1777 Colonel Snyder had been 
a member of most of the courts martial held 
when Tories had been tried, and when their 


guilt was proved had been severe. Now, with 
the frontier of Ulster county to defend against 
such human devils as gave to the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife defenceless women and chil- 
dren at Wyoming and Cherry Valley, Colonel 
Snyder laid a heavy hand upon the Tory whites 
who incited the red men to their fiendish deeds. 
An article in an Ulster county paper some 
years after the Revolution speaks of Colonel 
Snyder's success in unearthing their machina- 
tions, and defeating their plottings so invariably 
that no raids occurred in his territory except 
the one when Captain Jeremiah Snyder was 

Part of his regiment was usually stationed 
at Little Shandaken to watch the approach 
through the valley of the Esopus, and until the 
close of the war scouts constantly covered the 
territory from the Hurley woods to the Palen- 
ville Clove along the foot of the Catskills. On 
two or three occasions marauding Indians and 
Tories were turned back by finding their move- 
ments watched, and at least one raid in force 
along the line of fhe present Ulster and Dela- 
ware Railroad in Shandaken led by nearly one 
hundred Tories was thus foiled. To his regi- 
ment was attached a troop of light horse which 
did very efficient service and was commanded 
by Captain Sylvester Salisbury, most of the 
members of which had been recruited in the 


town of Saugerties. A petition by them to 
Governor George Clinton will be found in an- 
other chapter in which they ask to remain with 
their old regiment. 

With the advent of peace Colonel Snyder 
returned to his duties as magistrate, and to 
active labor in the Board of Trustees of the 
Corporation of Kingston, of which for many 
years he had been a member. Here he con- 
tinued to serve until his death in 1794, at which 
time he was president of the board and had 
been of five preceding ones. 

On Friday, August 22, 1794, Colonel Johan- 
nis Snyder died in the seventy fifth year of his 
age. The next day a public funeral was given 
him. At three in the afternoon the procession 
was formed at his residence on Maiden Lane, 
and his remains were taken to their burial in 
the churchyard of the Dutch church. Min- 
ute guns were fired from field pieces stationed 
on *' The Plains," as the present Academy 
Green was then called, during the march to the 
grave and as the procession returned. That 
procession was the greatest that Kingston had 
ever seen, and the officials, soldiers and citizens 
composed a rank and file which was longer than 
the distance from his residence to the grave. 

His residence was on the south-west corner 
of Maiden Lane and Fair street, in Kingston 
on the site of the present residence of the Rev. 


F. B. Seeley, the pastor of the Fair Street Re- 
formed Church. Colonel Snyder's house was 
torn down in 1807 by Edward Eltinge, and the 
site has been occupied by the residences of 
various prominent families until it passed to its 
present owner a year ago. 

The only other military officer above the 
rank of captain in the army of the Revolution 
who can be claimed as a Saugerties man was 
Major John Gillespy of the Fourth Ulster 
Militia. He was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 
1 741, and was the son of John Gillespy and 
Elizabeth Wilkins, his wife. He was early left 
an orphan, and was brought to this country by 
an aunt, and reared by her at New Windsor 
Orange county, New York. Here he lived and 
married Miss Margaret Smedes. 

When a boy he volunteered in the French 
and Indian War and served in the navy on the 
vessel " Harlequin." He was engaged in one 
fight at sea, which lasted " nine glasses," or 
hours. After the war he served as justice of 
the peace. 

When the colonies rebelled against Great 
Britain he immediately espoused their cause 
and offered his services. He was made major 
of the Fourth Ulster Militia, Colonel Johannes 
Hardenbergh commanding. Early in the sum- 


mer of 1776 he went with the regiment to 
New York city to assist in its defense. The 
regiment then consisted of four companies 
from Ulster county and one from Livingston 
Manor, Columbia county. But many of the 
troops were without arms, and lacked most of 
the necessaries for service. Upon an earnest 
request from Colonel Hardenbergh addressed 
to General Woodhull, President of the State 
Convention, on the 9th of August, 1776, in 
which he stated that his troops asked to be 
supplied even if it were deducted from their 
pay, supplies were granted at the expense of 
the patriotic troops themselves. 

On the 27th of the same month the bloody 
battle of Long Island was fought, in which 
this regiment bore its share. The Americans 
were defeated, and many of the prisoners 
taken were murdered in cold blood by the 
British and Hessians. Among these was Gen- 
eral Woodhull himself. 

The regiment participated in the battle of 
Harlem Heights and in the other engagements 
in the vicinity of New York city. During the 
summer of 1777 the regiment was with Gov- 
ernor George Clinton defending the passes of 
the Highlands of the Hudson, and when the 
passage was forced in October of that year, 
they came with the rest of Clinton's command 
to the relief of Kingston. They had reached 


the residence of their colonel in Rosendale, 
eight miles from Kingston, on the afternoon 
of October i6th and halted temporarily. 
Major Gillespy was dealing out rations to his 
men when the smoke from the burning town 
of Kingston became visible. Orders to re- 
sume the march were immediately given, but as 
the troops came over the '* Kijkuit " and 
caught sight of the town they found they 
were too late. The enemy were retiring to 
their vessels off Rondout. 

Major Gillespy removed to Saugerties after 
the close of the war and died here January 
5th, 1810, aged 69 years. During the whole 
of his residence in this town he was engaged 
in the business of a tanner, and his home was 
the constant resort of members of his old reg- 
iment to whom his hand and purse were ever 
open to so great an extent that he suffered 
much in financial depletion. 



Sir Walter Scott has made forever famous 
the troubadours of his native land, who wan- 
dered as minstrels through the mountains and 
valleys of Scotland, singing the brave deeds of 
olden times. All remember the opening lines 
of " The Lay of the Last Minstrel " : 

" The way was long, the way was cold. 
The minstrel was infirm and old, 
His withered cheek, and tresses gray, 
Seemed to have known a better day ; 
The last of all the bards was he 
Who sang of border chivalry. 
For well-a-day ! their date was fled, 
His tuneful brethren were all dead. 
And he, neglected and oppressed. 
Wished to be with them and at rest." 

There are many living to-day who will 
recall the wandering minstrel, who was uni- 
versally known along the Hudson in the years 
preceding the Civil War. 

All through the counties of Ulster and 
Greene, at least, was he well known in the 
years from 1835 to i860; and often was he 


seen all down the Hudson River valley, and 
even upon the streets of New York, and west- 
ward along the Mohawk he had occasionally 
wandered, and into Canada. He was harm- 
less, eccentric, impulsive, and at times inco- 
herent, with a faculty for impromptu rhyming, 
a sweet, sympathetic voice, and skill sufficient 
to draw the sweetest sounds from violin or 
flute. He would take a popular air, which 
everyone just then happened to be singing, 
and passing along the country sides would 
gather the local events and happenings. Then 
with violin in hand, would improvise the tale 
in a song to the popular air, and the passer by 
would stop to hear. And if the song caught 
the fancy of his auditors, he would have the 
words printed as a ballad, and with an old 
horse, and his loved violin and flute, he would 
drive away, along the country roads, or village 
streets, accompanied by his troop of dogs, 
singing, playing and selling his ballads. 

Such was Henry S. Backus, " The Sauger- 
ties Bard," as he called himself. He was a 
native of the northern part of Greene county, 
New York. His father was a colonel in the 
War of 1812, and was at Sackett's Harbor 
during the building of Commodore Chauncey's 
fleet, and was shot in one of the conflicts on 
the Niagara frontier. The colonel was an 
agreeable companion, with an excellent voice 


and great skill with musical instruments, and 
from him his son derived his love for martial 
music. A brother of the bard was educated 
at West Point, married a daughter of General 
Brady, U. S. A., became a colonel also, and 
repeatedly received honorable mention for 
gallantry in the Mexican War. 

The subject of this sketch grew to manhood 
with a passion for what concerns a soldier. 
He possessed a peculiarly correct ear for 
martial music, and in early years was an 
efHcient teacher of the fife, the drum and the 
bugle. Later he taught school, and coming to 
Saugerties he married a Miss Legg, with 
whom he lived for a number of years. After 
her death his mind received a peculiar bias 
and he began to lead the life of a wandering 
minstrel. When events occurred which startled 
the community, he often retired into the room 
in the rear of the store of his friend, John 
Swart, in the village of Saugerties, and 
reduced the account to rhyme. This he pub- 
lished, and on his minstrel tours would sell 
these penny ballads with others narrating 
striking events in the region. Much of his 
composition, in cold type, is the merest dog- 
gerel, which, when sung as an improvisation, 
in his sweet voice, accompanied by his charm- 
ing violin, seemed to capture his auditors. 

The songs are forgotten to all except a few 


of the older inhabitants, and yet occasionally 
one of the almanacs of the Saugerties Bard 
comes to light, of one of the years from 1845 
to 1855, which contains, besides the tables of 
an almanac, his ballads on the local events of 
the prevfous year. There is a little poetic 
merit in his " Dying Californian ": 

''Lay up nearer, brother, nearer. 

For my limbs are growing cold ; 
And thy presence seemeth dearer 

When thine arms around me fold. 
I am dying, brother, dying, 

Soon you'll miss me from your berth, 
And my form will soon be lying 

'Neath the coral-bedded earth." 

One summer evening the writer remembers 
to have heard the notes of a whip-poor-will in 
a thicket not far away. Listening to the 
querulous complaint of the bird, he did not 
notice in the darkness that someone was pass- 
ing. Presently a voice was heard to sing : 

" In rural strains, with right good-will. 
Loud sings the lovely whip-poor-will 

From eve till dawn of day. 
She all night long the descant sings. 
Through shady groves her music rings, 
A sharp and thrilling lay — 
Whip-poor-will, whip-poor-will, whip-poor-will." 

It was the Saugerties Bard, who, with a 
troop of dogs, and his ever-present violin, 


passed by, and found his inspiration in the 
woodland note. 

But the poetic muse was impractical. 
Though he wooed her and received her favors 
she did not provide for his subsistence. 
Friends, voluntarily, contributed for years to 
his support. But as his generation died, or 
sought homes elsewhere, the bard began in his 
older days to suffer wan{. The writer can see 
him now pass by, clad in a suit of gray, with 
long gray locks covered with a cap ; and his 
wanderings took him from his more familiar 
haunts. The country during the winter of 
1860-61 was in the throes of the excitement 
before the great Civil War. The minstrel was 
forgotten, and his mental powers were in their 
decadence. During the winter he was hardly 
seen. The night of Monday, May 13, 1861, 
was cold, cheerless and wet, as sometimes are 
nights in May. On Tuesday morning, James 
H. Gaddis, who kept a hotel at Katsbaan, 
went past a shed near his barn at an early 
hour. He saw a man lying there, and exam- 
ining him found him unconscious, numb with 
the cold and almost starved. He was fed and 
taken to the village of Saugerties. Here some 
one entered a charge of vagrancy against him, 
and an ofificer was sent with him to the Kings- 
ton jail, and the harmless singer of the hap- 
penings of village and countryside was com- 


pelled to learn that practical men had no com- 
passion upon an impracticable troubadour who 
could not work, or, if he could, would rather 
sing. The sick and starving minstrel was 
locked in a cell, a physician prescribed for him, 
but never came to see him again. The jail 
physician threw away the medicines of the first 
practitioner and left others, but gave him no 
further attention. For two or three days the 
poor outcast tossed on his cot in his cell unat- 
tended, suffering physically and mentally until 
the morning of Monday, May 20, 1861, when 
he turned his face to the wall and breathed his 
last. One who had known him heard of it and 
went to the jail. On his cot was lying an 
emaciated skeleton, scantily clad and exhausted 
by starvation and sleeping out of doors. His 
violin was gone, his canine companions were 
dead, his friends had deserted him, and now, 
within the walls of a jail, the sweet voice of 
the Saugerties Bard was silenced forever, to 
the disgrace of those whose inhumanity saw in 
the helpless indigence of a harmless trouba- 
dour nothing but the worthlessness of a 
vagrant, fit only for a convict's cell. 



In a former chapter on the Beaver creek 
allusion was made to a poem, " Katsbaan," 
from which a few lines were quoted. This 
poem was published in the Saugerties Tele- 
graph about twenty-five years ago without the 
name of its author. As some lines are descrip- 
tive of persons and scenes of which former 
chapters speak it has been thought well to 
give the poem entire in this connection. 

The glorious splendor of thine arching sky ; 

The winning beauty of thy smiling fields, 
As verdant in the summer' s sun they lie, 

Or golden with the stores their harvest yields, 
Woo me, sweet Katsbaan, to thy paths to-day, 
By brook, or lane, or field, or haunt to stray, 
And let thine influence o'er my spirit steal. 
To sing thy charms — thy history reveal. 

Each day to greet thee, with enraptured haste 
Taghkanic's peaks he climbs — the morning 
sun ; 

Then when, with ever new delight, has gazed 
Through all the hours thy varied charms upon, 

The Catskills makes his easel in the west 

To paint the curtained chambers of his rest, — 

''KATSBAAN:' 317 

Delighted, as thy beaming eyes behold 
His cloud-wove tapestries of purpled gold. 

Soft-flowing Beaver, by thy winding side 

I wander with the hours of passing day. 
Through thy pellucid depths and shallows glide 

The phantom forms of finny tribes at play. 
Umbrageous are thy banks. In close embrace 
The walnuts o'er thy bosom interlace ; 
And, in their mottled shade, by yonder spring 
The circling swallow dips his restless wing. 

How clear those fountain depths reflect the 
shade ! 

How glistening that crystalhne outflow ! 
I take this cup, of shell of cocoa made, — 

The virtues of ''The Powder Spring" would 
Deep in that sparkling mirror plunge the cup, 
And, of its liquid brightness, gather up 
A draught medicinal. Health overflown ! 
Then grasp my pilgrim staff" and wander on. 

I pass along thy lanes and many a bee 

His clover-gathered harvest homeward brings ; 
Robert of Lincoln's burst of melody. 

As rising from yon copse he floats and sings ; 
Those fields of corn in serried ranks extend 
With spears upraised, they would their stores 

defend ; 
And, as a veil of gauze no charm conceals. 
That orchard fruit that every leaf reveals. 

Another field, God's acre. Resting here 

Behold the spoils the hand of death hath won : 

Ashes to ashes, dust to dust. And year 
By year the conflict and defeat goes on. 


'Tis quiet here. Beneath this tree I'll rest, — 
Ponder the questions springing in the breast : 
Is it defeat ? And evermore to be ? 
May not this field become a plain of victory ? 

Behold this ancient church of mossy stone, — 

The tapering spire that pointeth to the skies ; 
Tell these of conquering Death, and this alone ? 

Of hopeless griefs, and cheerless miseries ? 
Let us approach the venerable pile 
With reverent step and docile heart the while : 
God's house it is. His Holy Name it bears 
Honored through fifty and one hundred years. 

What is the tale thy rock-based walls can tell ? 
What teachings from that sacred desk within ? 
*' I tell of victory over death and hell, — 
I tell of God's great sacrifice for sin, — 
I teach to all, — to thee if thou wouldst know, 
God saved the world that sin had plunged in woe! " 
Tell some calm message to my heart in strife. 
" I am the Resurrection and the Life." 

O comfort this ! His is the victory ! 

The conqueror Death His messenger becomes 
To hold our bodies in security, 

And take our spirits to their heavenly homes ! 
Within thy walls, O house, a while I wait. 
Wouldst thou the history of thy years relate ? 
Who were the heralds from the courts of grace 
Who told these precious truths within this place ? 

It speaks. ' ' From homes in ruin by the torch 
of war ; 

From hills ; from valleys by the storied Rhine ; 
A band of storm-tossed exiles journeying far, 

Here found a home, and here arose this shrine. 

''KATSBAANr 319 

Here 'op de Kats Baan ' laid they stone on stone 
With songs of praise to Him, their Guide alone ; 
Far from the Fatherland, and far from war's 

uncease — 
They raised this temple to the Prince of Peace. 

'< Here came the myriad-tongued, came Mancius, 
to weld 
Dutchman and Palatine and Huguenot in one : 
Their voices to a common Father swelled, — 

Reformed or Lutheran, — an irenicon. 
The Wallkill valley and the Hudson wide 
Saw spires arise in vale ; on mountain side, — 
Of an unceasing toil the monument, 
As thirty years and two of life were spent. 

'' So stood I here reveahng God to man ; 

For many years thus floorless, fireless stood. 
Then Mancius died. And eighteen years passed 
No pastor here to guide this flock to God. 
'Twas Freedom's time ; and fortunate in their 

Came patriots to preach, who came to lead, — 
To fan the patriot flame to ruddy glow. 
Thus Doll ; thus Schuneman ; thus Westerlo. 

" As Israel's tribes to Zion's holy hill, 

Up to these courts the worshippers would come 
From where is Saugerties ; where Plattekill, 

Flatbush, Blue Mountain, Maiden, Kiskatom : 
All daughters fair of mine. But passing fair 
Those faithful ones who traveled leagues to 

Call others privileged? These had this much ; 
The gospel undefiled in Holland Dutch. 


" I see the pulpit high — an octagon. 

Its pedestal, doophtiisje, winding stair ; 
And room within for one, and one alone ; 

A canopy above, suspended there. 
No spire, no bell ; but, 'neath the eaves, a porch 
With trumpet hung to summon all to church : 
Till innovation brought stoves, bell and spire. 
Floors, straight-back pews, voorleser and a choir. 

'' With brows enwreathed by the scholastic bays 
In rivalry at far-famed Leyden won ; 
Van Vlierden, first in learning and in grace. 

Took up the task De Ronde had laid down. 
Through eleven years of controversial storm, 
While feuds ran high and party spirit warm. 
He preached the cross, and multitudes were blest. 
Then passed the short two years of Demarest. 

^' The 'noblest Roman of them all' I see ! 

Before me stands Paul of this latter age ! 
Giant in logic — deep in philosophy — 

Learned in the lore of classic history's page — 
Mighty in Scripture — theologian — 
A lion-hearted, tender-hearted man ! 
Ostrander ! yes, thy locks of driven snow 
Before me rise ! Thine eagle glances glow ! 

" Perchance to-day the sovereignty of Heaven 

The burden of his theme. On wings sublime 
A view of God's prerogatives is given ; 

Or we with Moses up Mount Sinai chmb. 
Perchance His fatherhood. The wayward will, 
Drawn by the fihal cords he binds with skill ; 
Breaking, is led to Abba, Father, call — 
Returning home, a weeping prodigal. 

''KATSBAAN:' 321 

*' Or justifying faith, that maketh whole, — 

Or hope — the anchor caught within the vail ; — 

Devotion — wing of the aspiring soul, — 
Or charity — that nevermore shall fail. 

Depravity — lo, an Egyptian night ! 

God's holiness — mount of transfiguring hght ! 

Man ruined ; — see the track a cyclone trod ! 

Redeemed, — a living temple of his God ! 

*' Perchance God's wondrous love, in Christ, 
declared : 
See, as he speaks, his tender bosom glow ! 
Perchance the theme God's arm in justice bared : 

The spirit of Elijah burning now. 
Perchance a Pisgah view ; as with the seers 
He reads with Daniel of the coming years ; 
Or walks with John the rock-ribbed isle of 

And sees the dawning of Millennial peace. 

*' Or by the couch of pain, or bed of death: 

He tells of Him who pain and sickness bore : 

Who made the grave His spoil : Who vanquisheth 
The King of Terrors now and evermore : 

Who bore our sins, — is wilhng to receive 
All who will come, repent, confess, beheve. 

The dying, and the living, day by day 

He points to Jesus and he leads the way. 

* ' The story this of half a century's space. 

Sons laid their sires to rest beneath this sod : 
His tears were dropped with theirs within this 
place ; 
Committing them unto their father's God. 
Their sons in turn laid theirs. That pastor old — 
The old, old story of the Love re-told 


That came and wept, and won at Bethany : 
'Forevermore the dead shall live, in Me.' 

** Often another and a different scene : 
Some Cana here, as once in Galilee : 
He went, as following the Nazarene ; 

And when the vows in their sincerity 
Were made his spirits burst their close restraint 
With humor, wit, tales new, and old, and quaint : 
As from a bubbling spring his mirth outpoured — 
Cheer filled the room, as plenty filled the board. 

*' Such is the story of these ancient walls. 
I can not of the living pastors tell — 
Of Collier, Chapman, Searle — in winning souls 
They served their Master, and they served Him 
Such was the tale. With hngering steps, and 

And many a backward glance, I turned to go : 
And still that voice oft in a silent hour 
The ''Old Stone Church's" tale re-tells with 

Ye field of oaks, down all the hoary past 

The faithful sentries at this house of God ; 
Ye braved the summer's lightning — winter's 
blast : 
True to your charge in solid phalanx stood. 
How few ye are ! About on every side 
I see the stations where your comrades died ; 
Faithful to death, in branch, in twig, in stem. 
The zephyr sings e'en now their requiem. 

Again I set me down. Around me lie 

The goodly farms that cover hill and plain ; 

''KATSBAAN:' 323 

The happy homes ; their guardian roof-trees by : 

Do any after all these years remain 
An olden heritage, and unconveyed ? 
Behold the home by yonder maple's shade ; 
The spreading farm house, through whose open 

We see God's gift of generations more. 

I take my staff, dear Katsbaan, to depart ; — 

Thy well-taught lessons on my soul impressed ; 
And as I journey on would hft my heart 

To do His will, and leave with Him the rest. 
The evening shadows round my pathway lie, — 
The Catskills darken in the western sky ; — 
I soar in soul ! Their aspiration given : 
They lift their peaks and converse hold with 



Among the pleasing recollections of every 
one brought up from infancy in a home where 
the parents were able to speak Dutch there is 
one that ever haunts the memory with its 
strains. It is that of the rhymes of the nur- 
sery. Who that was ever trotted on the knee 
of such a father can forget " Trip a trop a 
troontjes ? " 

Trip a trop a troontjes, 
De varkens in de boontjes, 
De koetjes in de klaver, 
De paarden in de haver, 
De eenjes in de water-plas, 
De kalf in de lang gras ; 
So groot mijn kleine poppetje was. 

This might be rendered into English 

Trip a trop a troontjes. 
The pigs are in the bean vines, 
The cows are in the clover blooms, 
The horses in the oat fields, 
The ducks are in the water-pond, 
The calf is in the long grass ; — 
So tall my little baby was ! 


Or, when he had thrown one leg over the 
knee of the other and made a saddle of the 
free foot, he asked you to ride, and then he 

Zoo rijden de Heeren 

Met hun mooije kleeren ; 

Zoo rijden de vrouwen 

Met hun bonte mouwen ; 

Dan komt de akkerman 

Met zijn paardjes toppertan ; 

Hij drijft voorbig nauw Amsterdam 

Met zijn koetsier achteran : 

Schoe, schoe paardjes 

Met zijn vlossa staartjes ; 
Draf, draf, draf. 

A free-handed translation into English could 
render it : 

So ride the Lords 
With their handsome clothes ; 
So ride their ladies 
With their calico sleeves ; 
Then comes the farmer 
With his horses tandem ; 
He drives them on to Amsterdam 
With his coachman behind : 
Shoe, shoe the horses 
With their flossy tails ; 
Trot, trot, trot. 

And as the mother rocked a Dutch cradle 
she might be heard to sing 


Slaap, kindje, slaap, 

Daar buiten loopt een schaap, 

Een schaap met vier witte voetjes, 

Dat drinkt zijn melk zoo zoetjes : 

Witte wol en zwarte wol, 

Zoo krijgt ieder zijn buikje vol. 

The English would be 

Sleep, baby, sleep, 
In the fields there runs a sheep, 
A sheep with four white feet 
That drinks its milk so sweet : 
White wool and black wool ; 
So either gets its stomach full. 

When spinning-bees were held the maidens 
would tease each other with the following 

*' Spin, mijn lieve dochter, 

Dan geve ik u een hoen. " 
'' Ach ! mijn heve moeder, 
Ik hav het niet gedaan ; 
Ik kan niet spinnen, — 
Ach zie ! mijn vinger doetmijn zoo zeer. 

'' Spin, mijn lieve dochter, 

Dan geve ik u een schaap. ' ' 
'* Ach ! mijn lieve moeder, 
Het geve mij de gaap ; 
Ik kan niet spinnen, — 
Ach zie ! mijn vinger doet mijn zoo zeer.'* 

" Spin, mijn lieve dochtor, 

Dan geve ik u een koe." 
*' Ach ! mijn lieve moeder, 


Het maakt mij zoo moe ; 
Ik kan niet spinnen, — 
Ach zie ! mijn vinger doet mijn zoo zeer." 

<' Spin, mijn lieve dochter, 

Dan geve ik u een paard. ' ' 
'' Ach ! mijn lieve moeder, 
Ik ben het niet waard ; 
Ik kan niet spinnen, — 
Ach zie ! mijn vinger doet mijn zoo zeer." 

'' Spin mijn heve dochter, 

Dan geve ik u een man." 
'■'■ Ach ! mijn heve moeder, 
Dan gaan ik daaran ; 
Ik kan wel spinnen, — 
Ach zie ! mijn vinger doet mijn geen zeer." 

In English the song vi^ould be similar to 

'< Spin, my beloved daughter. 

Then give I thee a hen." 
" Oh,. my beloved mother, 

I never this have done ; 
I can not spin, — 
Oh, see ! my fingers are so sore." 

'' Spin, my beloved daughter, 

Then give I thee a sheep. ' ' 
" Oh, my beloved mother. 

That would only make me yawn ; 
I can not spin, — 
Oh, see ! my fingers are so sore." - 

<' Spin, my beloved daughter, 
Then give I thee a cow." 


** Oh, my beloved mother, 
That makes me so tired ; 
I can not spin, — 
Oh, see ! my fingers are so sore." 

*' Spin, my beloved daughter, 

Then give I thee a horse." 
*' Oh, my beloved mother, 

It is not worth the while ; 
I can not spin, — 
Oh, see ! my fingers are so sore." 

" Spin, my beloved daughter. 

Then give I you a husband." 
*' Oh, my beloved mother. 
Then go I now right on ; 
I can spin well, — 
Oh, see ! my fingers do not get sore." 

A popular ballad of the olden time was 

De Heer en de Meisje. 

Ik zagen een mooije meisje ; en vroeg zij 

opstaan ; 
Voor haar zoete-lieve uit zij onderzoeken gaan : 
Zij trachten en zij zoeken uit onder de linde, 
Maar zij kunnen haar zoete-heve niet ergens 


Met dat komt een heer, en, ophouding, hij roep ; 
" Schoon meisje, wet gij wel wat gij zook ? " 
*' Ach ! wet gij mijn heer ik mijn zoete-lieve 
En ik kun niet van hem zien, — ik kun niet van 
hem hoor. " 


Met dat trekt de heer uit zijn fluweelen mouw 
Een ketting zoo lang van geellachtig goud : 
** School! meisje, dit zal ik met blijdschap beschenk, 
Dan zal gij op uvve lieve niet langer gedenk. ' ' 

*' Hoewel de ketting bezitting zuck lengte, 
Dat het van de aarde tot de hemel bereik, 
Dan liever ik wensch voor eeuwig verreizen, 
Als dat ik een ander geliefde verkiezen." 

Met dat spreek de heer, bezweren bij zijn bloed ; 
*' Schoon meisje, wet gij wel wat gij doet ? 
Gij zeker zal zoo wezen mijn Ueve huisvrouw. 
En ook een ander Heve zal ik ooit getrouw." 

Without attempting to give a translation in 
rhyme or rhythm, a rendering into English 
might read : 

I saw a handsome maiden, and early she arose ; 
For her sweet-heart she went out to search : 
She tried and she searched out under the Hndens, 
But she could not her sweet-heart anywhere find. 

With that came a lord, and, holding up, he called : 

*' Beautiful maid, know you well what you seek? " 

*' Oh, know you, my lord, I my sweet-heart have 


And I can not of him see ; I can not of him 


With that drew the lord out his velvet sleeve 
A chain so long of yellow gold : 
<* Beautiful maid, this shall I with pleasure bestow, 
Then shall you on your love no longer think. ' ' 


' * Although the chain possessed such a length 
That it from the earth to the heaven reached, 
Then rather I desire to spend it forever in search, 
As that I another lover must choose." 

With that spoke the lord, a swearing by his blood : 
*' Beautiful maid, know you well what you do ? 
You surely shall so be my loving wife. 
And too no other love shall I ever marry.' ' 

There was another little rhyme very widely 
sung which runs after this manner : 

Daar was e^n mooije meisje in het killetje vervallen : 
Had ik niet hoor haar dompelen, — 
Had ik niet hoor haar schreeuwen, — 
Had haar kopje niet boven steken 
Dan had zij wis verdrunken. 

The English of this would be : 

There was a handsome maiden in the httle creek 

had fallen : 
Had I not heard her plunging, — 
Had I not heard her screaming, — 
Had not her head kept out 
Then had she sure been drowned. 

Some Dutch Mother Goose must surely 
have dreamed the following nonsense rhymes. 
How her patriotic soul delights to impale the 
Spaniards whom her compatriots had so suc- 
cessfully fought for eighty years : 

Hinken de pinken 
Zitten te klinken, — 


Zat met de kan 
Dat hij uit gedrinken. 
*' Is daar niet in ? 
Laten het halen ! 
Jan van Spanje 
Hij zal het betalen ! " 

Or, rendered into English, the rhyme runs : 

Hinker the winker 
Sitting to touch glasses — 
Drunk with the can 
That he had emptied. 
** Is there nothing in ? 
Let it be brought ! 
John of Spain, 
He shall pay the bill ! " 

A boisterous boaster is thus described : 

Daar komt hij ! Een snoeshaan geweldig gestampen \ 
Een beest hij gebruUen ! Een mansbeeld gezwoUen ; 
Een openlijic bloodard ! Het maakt neen vershil ; 
Het ware Jan van Spanje zonder zijn bril. 

Or, in English : 

There comes he ! A braggart hard riding ! 
A beast he a-roaring ! A mannikin swelled up ! 
An arrant coward ! It makes no difference ; 
He is John of Spain without his spectacles. 

The allusion seems to be to the historic joke 
of Holland, in which the loss by the Duke of 
Alva of the city of Brille has always been 
called '* The loss of the Duke of Alva's spec- 
tacles " (zijn bril). 


Here is a churning song : 

Ha ! ja ! zaa ! ha ! ja ! zaantjes ! 
De boter loopt door de roerstok eindjes. 
Ha ! ja ! je ! Ha ! ja ! je ! 
Boterje, boterje, komt ! 
ledereen kHentje tobbetjevol. 

So far as it can be expressed in English, it 
would be : 

Ha ! ja ! zaa ! ha ! ja zaantjes ! 
The butter runs through the dasher's ends. 
Ha ! ja ! je ! Ha ! ja ! je ! 

Butter, butter, come ! 
Everybody a httle tub full. 

In this is a riddle : 

Dans boven de zolder ; 
En al de lands heeren 
Kunnen niet Holder-de-bolder 
Van de zolder pareeren. 

The answer is " Smoke," and the English 

Dances over the garret ; 
And all the nation's lords 
Can not Topsy-turvey 
Ward oif from the garret. 

The Netherland Mother Goose was surely 
the author of this : 

** Ik bakken mijn brood ; ik brouwen mijn bier ; — 
Had ik mijn paardjes ik zouda gij jagere." 


'* Wedden uwe paardjes weinigje man 
Op den koop toe, achter an." 

This jingle may be in English : 

* ' I bake my bread ; I brew my beer ; 

Had I my horses I would you drive." 
*' Wager your horses, little man, 

Into the bargain, on behind." 

In one of her patriotic moods the venerable 
dame thus sings : 

Wij wil mee naar Engeland vare, 
Voor Van Tromp doet Engeland zeer. 

Engeland is opsluiten ; 

De sluitel is verbreken. 
Zwarte bedelaar, wat doen gij hier ? 

The reference to Van Tromp is, without 
doubt, to his great naval victories over the 
British, after which the Dutch admiral sailed 
up the English channel with a broom at his 
masthead. The translation is: 

We will also to England sail. 

For Van Tromp does England sore. 

England is locked up (blockaded) ; 

The key is broken. 
Black beggar, what do you here ? 

At parties of young people in those days 

this ditty was usually sung : 

Het regent, en het hagelt, en 'tis onstuimig weder ; 
In komt de boerman zuigen cider : 


Wie wezen de maaier ? ik wezen de binder ; 

Ik heb mijn lieve verloren ; waar zal ik vind haar ? 

The song survives and is still sung in rural 
companies in the English version as follows : 

It rains, and it hails, and ' tis boisterous weather ; 

In comes the farmer sucking cider : 

Who is the reaper ? I am the binder ; 

I have my love lost ; where shall I find her ? 

A popular children's rhyme was 

Wie komt met mij naar koetjestal 
Zoete melk ter halen ? 

Ik en gij en kindjes al 
Zal het wel betalen. 

Vier paardjes voor wagen 

Had het haast verjagen. 
Toe, paardjes, toe. 

which may be translated thus : 

Who comes with me to the dairy 

Sweet milk to bring ? 
You and I and children all 

Shall pay for it well 
Four horses before the wagon 
Had almost run away with it. 
Hurry, horses, hurry. 

Here is an old riddle : 

Een koning moet een koning onder een essche- 

boom : 
De koning tot de koning zegt, **Wat ben uwe 



'' Goud ben mijn zadel ; zilver ben mijn teugel ; 
essche ben mijn boog. 
Ik vertelt mijn naam drie tijdt in een rij." 
(Antvvoord, Ben.) 

In English the riddle would run thus : 

A king met a king under an ash tree : 
The king to the king said, ' ' What is your name ?' ' 
*' Gold is my saddle ; silver is my bridle ; ash is 
my bow. 
I told my name three times in a row. ' ' 
(Answer, Ben.) 

Here is the story of the trading of 

Een Arme Schepzel. 

*' Goeden-morgen, naaste Jan ! 

Waar komt gij zoo vroeg van daan ? " 
* * Van de markt. " " Wat doen gij daar ? ' ' 
'■ ' - Verkoopt mij n dochter. " " Wat krijgt gij voor ? ' * 
*' Een schepel geld." " Geve mijn de geld." 
*' Kom aan," zegt Jan. 

" Goeden-morgen, naaste Jan ! 

Waar komt gij zoo vroeg van daan ? * ' 
' ' Van de markt. " " Wat doen gij daar ? ' ' 
' ' Handelt mijn geld. " " Wat krijgt gij voor ? ' ' 
" Een vosse paard." " Geve mijn de paard." 
" Kom aan," zegt Jan. 

'* Goeden-morgen, naaste Jan ! 

Waar komt gij zoo vroeg van daan ? ' ' 
' * Van de markt. " " Wat doen gij daar ? ' ' 
" Handelt mijn paard." " Wat krijgt gij voor ? " 
" Een bontekoe." '' Geve mijn de koe." 
* ' Kom aan, ' * zegt Jan. 


'' Goeden-morgen, naaste Jan ! 

Waar komt gij zoo vroeg van daan ? ' ' 
' * Van de markt. " ' ' Wat doen gij daar ? ' ' 
" Handelt mijn koe. " " Wat krijgt gij voor ? " 
** Een zwarte schaap." " Geve mijn de schaap.'* 
*' Kom aan," zegt Jan. 

** Goeden-morgen, naaste Jan ! 

Waar komt gij zoo vroeg van daan ? ' ' 
" Van de markt." " Wat doen gij daar ? " 
'' Handelt mijn schaap." " Wat krijgt gij voor? " 
'* Een kraaien hoen." '' Geve mijn de hoen." 
'* Kom aan," zegt Jan. 

" Goeden-morgen, naaste Jan ! 

Waar komt gij zoo vroeg van daan ? ' ' 
' ' Van de markt. " " Wat doen gij daar ? ' ' 
" Handelt mijn hoen." "Wat krijgt gij voor?'* 
'* Een bits wetsteen." " Geve mijn de steen. " 

" Kom aan," zegt Jan. 
Met dat hij verwerpt zijn wetsteen achter zijn 


'• Arme schepzel " is a contemptuous ex- 
pression meaning " A poor creature," and the 
story of his trading may be told in these 
words : 

" Good-morning, neighbor John ! 

Whence come you so early to-day? " 
** From the market." *' What did you there ? " 
'* Sold my daughter." " What got you for her? " 
* ' Three pecks of money. " ' ' Give me the money. ' * 
'' Come on," said John. 

*' Good-morning, neighbor John ! 
Whence come you so early to-day? " 


«' From the market." " What did you there ? " 
' ' Traded my money. " " What got you for it ? " 
** A sorrel horse." '' Give me the horse." 
'• Come on," said John. 

The next day, John returned from the 
market, having traded his horse for a spotted 
cow, the next his cow for a black sheep, then 
his sheep for a crowing rooster, then the 
rooster for a keen whetstone. Then, realizing 
his foolishness, he threw the whetstone after 
his daughter. 

When boys were anxious that the sap should 

loosen the bark that whistles might be made 

they sang 

Sappen, sappen, rijpen ! 
Wanneer zal gij pijpen ? 
Onsluit mij fluitje ! 
Los ! los ! los ! 

Or in English 

Sap, sap, ripen ! 
When will ye pipe ? 
Unlock my whistle ! 
Loosen ! loosen ! loosen ! 

The following was inscribed in an old book: 

Die dit vint en brengt het hier, — 
Om een appel ; om een peer : 
Die het vint en niet het doet ; 
Is hij gallig niet te goet. 


And interpreted it is: 

Who this finds and brings it here, — 
About an apple, — about a pear : 
Who it finds and does it not ; 
His gall is not too good. 

A St. Nicholas song is given in a former 
chapter. Here is another : 

Zie ! de maan schijnt door de boomen ! 

Makkers, stuit uwe wild gerass ! 
De heilig avondstonds aankomen ; 

De avonding van Santa Claus. 
Van verwachting klopt onze hart — 
Wie de koek krijgt ; wie de garde. 

Attempting to render this into English we 

See ! the moon shines through the trees ! 

Comrades, stop your wild rackets ! 
The holy evening is approaching ; 

The evening of Santa Claus. 
With expectation throbs our heart — 
Who the cake gets ; who the rod. 

Then follows a short homily on diligence 
and industry : 

Wie in de somer vergaardert haast, 
Dan kun hij in de winter leest. 
Die set hem bij een warme vier 
En eet en drinkt op zijn pleizier. 
Maar die niet somer' s haast gespart, 
Men ziet wel hoe zijn winters varet ; 


Zij leven lui, en slaapen lang ; 
En borgen op de Kersttijdt aen ; 
Betalen op St. Nimmer's dag ; 
Zulk lui gespuys ik niet vermaagh. 
De Schrift de wijz haar tot de mier ; 
Al is het maar een arme dier. 

A free translation would make it : 

Who in the summer reaps with speed, 
Then can he in the winter read. 
Such sits him by a warm fire 
And eats and drinks at his pleasure. 
But such as summer's haste have spared, 
Men see well how their winters go ; 
They live lazily, and sleep long ; 
And borrow on the Christmas next ; 
Paying upon St. Never' s day. 
Such lazy rabble I do not delight in. 
The Scriptures point them to the ant ; 
Though it is but a poor insect. 

Another rhyme which was often repeated in 
former days was this : 

De molenaar is een groote dief, — 
De groote zakken have zijn lief; 
De kleine laten hij doorlopen. 
Uit elk een zak 
Hij sluipen wat ; 
Dan nood hij niet eenig brood te koopen. 

English readers may read it after this 
fashion : 

The miller is a great thief, — 
The larger bags have his love ; 


The smaller lets he run out. 
Out of each bag 
He steals a little ; 
Then needs he not to buy any bread. 

The following is a Mother Goose rhyme pure 
and simple : 

Terre, leere, lits-a-lote — 

De hond lijt in de keuken doode : 

Zijn staart was voort ; 

Zijn kop ontbloot. 
Toe komt mijn heer, a jonger ; 
En hij zegt de hond was dronker. 
Den komt een timmerman, 
En timmert de hond zijn staart weer aan. 

Suppose we make this read 

Terre, leere, lits-a-lote — 

The dog lies in the kitchen dead : 

His tail is gone ; 

His head is bare. 
Then comes my young lord ; 
And he says the dog is drunk. 
Then comes a carpenter, 
And builds the tail on again. 

Another children's riddle was similar to 

Daar blijft een mooije dingetje altijd langst de dijk ; 
Met zijn oogen op zijn kopje als rondom hij kijk ; 
Met zijn voeten in de moerashij dans wipperty- wop. 
Raader, raader, raader, wat dingetje was dot ? 
(Antwoord, Kikvorsch.) 


The riddle might be thus in English : 

There lives a handsome little creature the while 

beside the dyke ; 
With his eyes above his head all around him he 

gazes ; 
With his feet in the swamp he dances whipperty- 

Guesser, guesser, guesser, what creature is that ? 

(Answer, Frog.) 

There was a riddle v^hich ran after this sort ; 

Ik vare hier van oude land, 
Verbonden dicht met ijzer band ; 
Moorde have ik niet gedaan; — 

Versluipen niet; 

Bedriegen niet; 
Maar een pin is in mijn kop verslaan. 
(Antwoord, Vat.) 

To English children the riddle would be: 

I sailed here from the old land, 
And am bound with iron bands; 
Murder have I not done; — 

Stolen not; 

Cheated not; 
Yet a peg is beaten into my head. 

(Answer, Cask.) ^ 

Old-time horses are represented as saying 

Op de berg slaan mij niet; 
Neder de berg haast mij niet; 
DoOr de vlakte spaar mij niet; 
So kan ik werk en verget u niet. 


An American horse would interpret this to 

Up the hill whip me not; 
Down the hill speed me not; 
Across the level spare me not; 
So I can work and forget you not. 

An old Dutch aphorism made use of by 
Washington Irving is this : 

De waarheid die in duister lag ; 

Die komt met klaarheid aan den dag. 

It is just as true in English : 

The truth that in the darkness lay ; 
That comes with clearness in the day. 

The advice in this motto is certainly 
judicious : 

Drink wat klaar is ; 
Spreek wat waar is ; 
Eet wat gaar is. 

Translated it is : 

Drink what pure is ; 
Speak what true is ; 
Eat what is well cooked. 

Something of an entirely different order is 
the following homely rhyme : 

Wij planten eens aardappelse, — de oogst was niet 
heel groote; 


En wij gedachte zij zoo verrotten daar was nietig 

voor ons nood. 
Wij doen hen in de kelder in de mooije drogen 

En de aardappelse ware mooije de heel jaar door. 

An English version would have it : 

We planted once potatoes ; the harvest was not 
great ; 

And we thought they had rotted so there was noth- 
ing for our need. 

We put them in the cellar in the lovely dry weather, 

And the potatoes were excellent the whole year 

The following is cumulative after the man- 
ner of the English *' House that Jack Built": 

De eerste dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn heve stuurde tot mijn 
Een patrijs in de peerboom. 

De tweede dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn heve stuurde tot mijn 
Twee tortelduif en een patrijs in de peerboom. 

De derde dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn Ueve stuurde tot mijn 
Drie Fransch hoenen, twee tortelduif en een patrijs 
in de peerboom. 

De vierde dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn lieve stuurde tot mijn 
Vier leggen ganzen, drie Fransch hoenen, twee tor- 
telduif en een patrijs in de peerboom. 


De vijfe dag van Kersttijdt 

Mijn lieve stuurde tot mijn 
Vijf eendjes zwemming, vier leggen ganzen, drie 

Fransch hoenen, twee tortelduif en een pat- 

rijs in de peerboom. 

De zesde dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn lieve stuurde tot mijn 

Zes vioole speelen, vijf eendjes zwemming, vier 
leggen ganzen, drie Fransch hoenen, twee 
tortelduif en een patrijs in de peerboom. 

De zevende dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn lieve stuurde tot mijn 

Zeven gedansen meisjen, zes vioole speelen, vijf 
eendjes zwemming, vier leggen ganzen, drie 
Fransch hoenen, twee tortelduif en een pat- 
trijs in de peerboom. 

De achtste dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn lieve stuurde tot mijn 

Acht beene hammetje, zeven gedansen meisjen, 
zes vioole speelen, vijf eendjes zwemming, 
vier leggen ganzen, drie Fransch hoenen, 
twee tortelduif en een patrijs in de peer- 

De negende dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn Heve stuurde tot mijn 

Negen bulle bruUing, acht beene hammetje, zeven 
gedansen meisjen, zes vioole speelen, vijf 
eendjes zwemming, vier leggen ganzen, drie 
Fransch hoenen, twee tortelduif en een pat- 
rijs in de peerboom. 

De tiende dag van Kersttijdt 
Mijn lieve stuurde tot mijn 


Tien paardjes drafen, negen buUe bruUing, acht 
beene hammetje, zeven gedansen meisjen, 
zes vioole speelen, vijf eendjes zwemming, 
vier leggen ganzen, drie Fransch hoenen, 
twee tortelduif en een patrijs in de peer- 

A rendering of the first verse and the tenth 
will sufficiently translate it: 

The first day of Christmas 

My loved one sent to me 
A partridge in the pear tree. 

The last verse comprises all the rest : 

The tenth day of Christmas 
My loved one sent to me 

Ten trotting horses, nine bulls bellowing, eight 
bones of ham, seven dancing maidens, six 
vioUns a-playing, five ducks a-swimming, 
four geese a-laying, three French hens, two 
turtle-doves and a partridge in the pear 
tree. (A Dutch partridge is the American 
quail. ) 

In giving an English rendering of the above 
ballads and rhymes no attempt has been made 
to do it in the English idiom. The translation 
has usually been a bald and literal one. They 
are given as closely as possible as they were 
sung by our ancestors in the Dutch of former 



The latter years of the Nineteenth Century- 
witnessed a revival of a spirit of patriotism in 
this country in the direction of a recognition 
of our debt to those who gave us the liberties 
we enjoy. The civil war had called forth all 
the energies of the American people, and in 
the appreciation of the valorous defense of the 
Union by the soldiers of that terrible conflict 
the deeds of their sires had almost passed out 
of sight. But during the last two decades a 
number of societies have arisen to teach this 
generation the debt thus owed. Among these 
there is none so large or so efficient as The 
Daughters of the American Revolution. For 
some time it had been felt that Saugerties 
should have a chapter. This work has told 
how true the fathers were. Their daughters 
felt that an obligation was resting upon them 
to cultivate this spirit in the rising genertion 
of this town. 

During the autumn of 1900 and the follow- 
ing winter the matter took a definite shape. 


A preliminary meeting was held January 17, 
1901, and on February 13. following, Sauger- 
ties Chapter, Daughters of the American Rev- 
olution, was organized with fourteen charter 
members. These were Mrs. Katharine C. 
Spaulding, Mrs. Lydia C. French, Mrs. Julia 
M. Phelps, Mrs. Annie M. F. Smedberg, Mrs. 
Marie K. W. James, Mrs. Eliza R. Seamon, 
Miss Jessie F. Da^wes, Miss Katharine G. Sah- 
ler, Mrs. Ella F.* Mould, Miss Ella DeWitt, 
Miss Ethel Gray, Mrs. Isabel F. Overbagh, Mrs. 
Kate S. F. Davis, Miss Annie Wilbur. 

To effect this organization Mrs. Katharine C. 
Spaulding was elected Regent; Mrs. Lydia C. 
French, Vice-Regent ; Mrs. Annie M. F. 
Smedberg, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Marie 
K. W. James, Corresponding Secretary ; Mrs. 
Julia M. Phelps, Treasurer; Miss Jessie F. 
Dawes, Registrar, and Miss Ethel Gray, His- 

To the chapter the following members were 
added before June ist, 1902: Mrs. Fannie R. 
Cantine, Miss Edith Corse, Miss Julia E. 
Lamb, Miss Gertrude M. Lamb, Mrs. Maude 
M'F. Washburn, Mrs. Helen S. Gale, Mrs. M. 
E. P. Gillespy, Mrs. Peter Cantine, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth S. W. Lewis, Mrs. Mary V. E. Burhans, 
Mrs. Nora B. Hommel, Mrs. Mary K. Pidgeon, 
Miss Abby P. Leland, Miss Anna M. Russell, 
Miss Jennie A. VanHoesen, Miss Mary E. 


VanHoesen, Mrs. Anna E. S. Miller, Mrs. 
Mary G. Lasher, Mrs. Julia Welch Searing — 
thirty-three members in all. 

The chapter determined to decorate the 
graves of such soldiers of the Revolution as 
are within the bounds of the town of Sauger- 
ties whose names and resting places are 
described in the appendix preceded by a list 
of the soldiers of the Revolution from the 
town. On Memorial Day, May 30, 1901, this 
was done by committees appointed to take 
charge of each locality. 

Prizes have been offered by the chapter for 
papers upon subjects of Revolutionary history 
to pupils in our public schools, and this history 
•of the town is now published at its request to 
tell fully and connectedly who they were who 
founded our town ; what our ancestors did to 
secure the freedom we enjoy, and how they did 
it. The heritage will be better appreciated 
when we know what it cost, and know that it 
was secured by those whose blood flows in our 


Saugerties Soldiers of the Revolution. 

The following list of those who, as residents of 
what is the present town of Saugerties, were soldiers 
in the patriot army during the American Revolu- 
tion is probably, as correct as it can be made at this 
late day. Some names may be omitted ; a lew 
repeated ; many served in more than one regiment 
and some names may be the same under more than 
one way of speUing. Great pains have been taken 
to include all. 


Col. Joh 

annis Snyder. 

Capt. Matthew Dederick 

Lieut. Peter Osterhoudt 

Capt. John L. DeWitt 

Lieut. Johannes Persen 

Capt. Jeremiah Snyder 

Lieut. Peter Post 

Lieut. Peter Backer 

Lieut. Edward Whitaker 

Lieut. Petrus Eygenaar 

Ensign Peter Brink, Jr. 

Lieut. Martin Hommel 

Ensign Stephen Fiero 

Lieut. Tobias Myer 

Ensign Tobias Wynkoop 

Adam Baer 

John Brink, Jr. 

Cuffee, Adam Baer's slave 

John A. Brink 

Henry Baer 

John G. Brink 

John Baer 

John T. B ink 

Jurrie Baer 

Peter Brink 

John Beaver 

Frederick Pritt 

Peter Beaver 

William Britt 

CorneHus Brinck 

Barent Burhans 

Cornelius C. Brinck 

John Burhans 

Hendrick Brink 

John Burhans, Jr. 
Tjerck Burhans 

Jacob Brinck 

Jacob Brink, Jr. 

Hieronymus Carnright 

John Brinck 

Jurrie Carle 

John C. Brink 

George Carle 

John J. Brink 

Jacob Cunyes 

Peter C. Brink 

Henry B. Crura 

Henry Brink 

Henry W. Crum 



Jacob Crum 

John Davenport 

John B. Davis 

Joseph Davis 

Sampson Davis 

Samuel Davis 

William Davis 

Jecobus DuBois 

James DuBois 

William DuBois 

Gilbert Dederick 

Calo, Gilbert Dederick's slave 

John Dederick 

Jonathan Dederick 

Harmanus Dederick 

Jacobus Dederick 

Matthew DeRonde 

John T. DeWitt 

Abram DeWitt 

Cornelius DeWitt 

Stephen Eckert 

Henry Eckert 

Jacob Eckert 

Jeremiah Eckert 

Martinus Eckert 

Solomon Eckert 

Frederick Eygenaar 

Jacob Eygenaar 

John Eygenaar 

Johannes Eygenaar 

Peter Eygenaar, Jr. 

Peter P. Eygenaar 

William Eygenaar 

Cornelius Ej^genaar 

Jacobus Eygenaar 

Peter D. Eygenaar 

Jacob Eligh 

Johannes Eligh 

Johannes Emerick 

Peter Emerick 

Wilhelmus Emerick 

Wilhemus Emerick, Jr. 

John Emerick 

Peter Eygenaar 

Benjamin Felten 

John C. Fiero 

Peter Fiero 

Coonradt Fiero 

Stephen Fiero 

William Fiero 

Coonradt Ferris 

Christian Fiero 

Christian Fiero, Jr. 

Han Christian Fiero 

George Foland 

Jacob Foland 

Adam France 

Cornelius France 

Jacob France 

Jacob France, Jr. 

Johannes France 

Wilhelmus France 
Johannes Freese 
Hendrick Freligh 
Hendrick Freligh, Jr. 
John Freligh 
Samuel Freligh 
Abraham Hommel 
Hermanus Hommel 
Jurrie Hommel 
Jurrie Hommel, Jr. 
Petrus Hommel 
Harman Hommel, Jr. 
John Kiersted 
Wilhelmus Kiersted 
Cornelius Langendyke 
John Langendyke 
Samuel Legg 
John Legg, Jr. 
Frederick Low 
Tjerck Low 
Jecobus Low 
Abram Low 
Peter Magee 
Peter Magee, Jr. 
Samuel Magee 
Johannes Markle 
Joseph Martin 
Adam Mauterstock 
Johannes Mauterstock 
Peter Mauterstock 
Jacob Mower 
Cornelius Minklaer 
Hermanus Minklaer 
Christian Myer 
Peter L. Mj'er 
Stephen Myer 
Johannes Mower, Jr. 
Jacob Musier 
Abram Myer 
Penjamin Myer 
Benjamin Myer, Jr. 
Cornelius Myer 
Coonradt Myer 
Ephraim Myer 
Henry Myer 
Johannes Myer, Jr. 
Peter Myer 
Peter Myer, Jr. 
Peter B. Myer 
Peter L. Myer 
Peter T. Myer 
Stephen Myer, Jr 
Teunis Myer 
William Myer, Jr. 
John Osterhoudt 
Petrus Osterhoudt 
Peter L. Osterhoudt 
Abraham Osterhoudt 
Cornelius Persen 
John Persen 
Teunis Ploegh 



Daniel Polhamus 
Abraham Post 
Abraham A. Post 
Cornelius Post 
Henry Post, Jr. 
Isaac Post 
Isaac Post, Jr. 
Jacobus Post 
John Post 
Martin Post 
Martin Post, Jr. 
Samuel Post 
Herman us Rechtmyer 
Coonradt Rechtmyer 
George Rechtmyer 
George Rechtmyer, Jr. 
Johannes Rechtmyer 
Jurry W. Rechtmyer 
Peter Rechtmyer 
Andrew Richley 
Jacob Richley 
Lodewick Russell 
Peter Sax 

Samnel Schoonmaker 
Edward Schoonmaker 
Egbert Schoonmaker, Jr. 
Hiskia Schoonmaker 
Tjerck Schoonmaker 
Tjerck Schoonmaker, Jr. 
Christian Schutt 
Solomon Schutt 
August Shoe 
Henry Short 
Petrus Short 
Benjamin Snyder 
Christian Snyder 
Henry Snyder 
Johannes Snyder, Jr. 
Martinas Snj'der 

Solomon Snyder 
Valentine Trumpbour 
John Trumpbour 
Jacob Trumpbour 
Hendrick Turck 
Johannes Turck 
Johannes Teetsell 
Johannes Valk 
Wilhelmus Valk 
Abraham Valkenburgh 
John Valkenburgh 
Andries Van Leuven 
John Van Leuven 
John Van Leuven, Jr. 
Zachariah Van Leuven 
John Van Steenburgh 
Paulus Van Steenburgh 
Petrus Van Steenburgh 
Thomas Van Steenburgh 
John Viele 
Henry Wells'^ 
Jacobus Wells '^ 
Peter A Winne 
Petrus Whitaker 
John Whitaker 
John Winne 
Benjamin Winne 
John Wolven 
Jeremiah Wolven 
John Wolven, Jr. 
Adam Wolven 
Evert Wynkoop 
Hezekiah Wynkoop 
John Wynkoop, Jr. 
William Wynkoop 
Daniel York 
Abraham Young 
Jeremiah Young 
Cornelius Wells. ^ — 


Major John Gillespy 
Lieut. Jurry Hommel 
Ensign Petrus Brinck 

John Brink, Jr. 
Peter Brink 

Lieut. Christian Fiero 
Lieut. Evert Wynkoop 
John Brink 

Solomon Brink 
Johannes Mauterstock, 


Adam Wolven 
Abraham Keator 
John J. Crispell 
Benjamin Winne 
Roeloff Eltinge 
John DeWitt, Jr. 
Christian Doll 
John Brink, Jr. 
Moses Pattison 
Baltus Kieffer 

Tjerck Low 
Peter Van Leuven 
Petrus Winne, Jr. 
Christian Fiero 
Henry P. Freligh 
Martin Hommel, Jr. 
John DeWitt, Jr. 
Hermanns Hommel 
John A. DeWitt 
Abraham Hommel 


John E. Schoonmaker John Turck 

Peter C. Brinck John Freligh 

Edward Osterhoudt Benjamin Felton. 
Hendrick Turck 


Adam Brink Wilham Myer 

Cornelius Brink Henry Post 

Cornelius Brink, Jr. Isaac Post 

John Brink Jacobus Post 

John C. Brink Martin Post 

Tjerck Burhans Samuel Post 

John Eygenaar Christian Schutt 

Coonradt Ferris Solomon Schutt 

Abraham Fiero Abraham Snyder 

Peter Fiero Elias Snyder 

Adam France Christian Snyder 

Abraham Myer Isaac Snyder 

Teunis Myer John Turck 

Peter Myer Nicholas Trumpbour 

Benjamin Myer George Young 

Adam Brink. 


John Crawford. 

Notes. — Colonel Johannis Snyder's name is in- 
cluded in the list as he was a Saugerties man by 
birth, although living in Kingston at the time of the 
war. Major John Gillespy did not become a resi- 
dent of Saugerties until after the war. The same is 
true of John Crawford, who became a minister of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and was the father 
of that church in the town. 

Cufifee, the slave of Adam Baer, under the law 
was entitled to his freedom after he had served 
three years, the State recompensing his master. 
So was Cato, the slave of Gilbert Dederick. 

The hst includes the names of some who at the 
beginning of the war were Tories. But they so 
angered their patriotic neighbors that they were 


compelled either to emigrate to Canada, or enter 
the service of the army of the patriots. Many 
chose the latter course. Here are 316 names. 
Allowing for duplicates 250 men must have served. 

The Graves of the Patriots. 

During the year 1901 a thorough and extended 
search was made all over the town of Saugerties to 
locate and identify the graves of the soldiers of the 
Revolution who sleep in the bosom of the town. 
Most of the graves have lost the stones which mark- 
ed them. Excepting the three cemeteries at Kats- 
baan, Saugerties and Plattekill these patriots lie 
scattered in almost forgotten graves upon the farms 
on which they lived at the close of the war. 

It is not attempted to give the inscriptions in full. 
Only the name, and date of birth and death are 
given. And where only the date of death and age 
are told merely this is transcribed. A number of 
the inscriptions are in Dutch, and one is in Palatine 
German. Of these the English rendering is given. 
The page given with the name is the one on which 
such service is found in " New York in the Revolu- 
tion." Where no regiment is mentioned the 
military service was in the First Ulster Regiment. 

In the cemetery at the Katsbaan church are 
found the graves of 

Cornelius Persen, who died 7 February 1S27, aged 82 years, 11 months 
and 20 days. See page 189. 

Ephraim Myer, born 21 October 1759; died 18 February, 1843. Page 

Jecobus Wells ; died 20 December 1798, aged 54 years Page 190. 


Christian Fiero, died 28 January 1826, aged 67 years, i month and 21 
days. Page 188. 

Johannes Mauterstock, died 31 January 1833; aged 81 years. Page 

Ensign Stephen Fiero, died 16 September 1831 ; aged 81 years and 5 
months Page 187. 

Hermanus Rechtmyer, died 13 May 1835; aged 81 years, 2 months and 
13 days Page 189. 

Abraham Fiero, died 4 November 1826 ; aged 63 years, 6 months and 
5 days. He served in Colonel Albert Pawling's Regiment of the Levies. 
Page 83. 

Peter Fiero, died 1S02, aged 41 years. Page 188. 

In the field southeast of the station at West Camp lie Captain Matthias 
Dederick, died 19 December 1S08 ; aged 71 years, 9 months and 19 days. 
Page 187. 

Wilhelmus Emerick, died 27 November 1841 ; aged 86 years. Page 

On the farm of Luther Myer, in Hommelville, is buried 

Hermanus Hommel, died i April 1S28 ; aged 82 years. Page 189. 

On the farm of Russell VVynkoop, in a lonely cedar woods rests 

Johannes Falck, born i January, 1740 Died 2 November 1822 Page 

On Rio Alto Stock Farm is the grave of 

Lieut. Evert Wynkoop, died 16 April 1830; aged 86 years, 7 months 
and 8 days Also in Fourth Ulster. Pages 191 and 200. 

In the Main Street Cemetery, Saugerties, lie buried 

John Brink, Jr., died 9 Tune 1814 ; aged 69 years, 8 months and 8 days. 
He also served in Fourth Ulster Regiment. Pages 187 and 200. 

Major John Gillespy, died 5 January 1810 ; aged 69 years. He was of 
Fourth Ulster Regiment. Page 199 
\y \ Martinus Snyder, died 2 February 1831 ; aged 82 years, 11 months and 

Y 10 days. Page 190. 

Samuel Schoonmaker, born 5 April 1755 ; died 25 March 1815. Page 

Petrus Myer, died 30 December 1813 ; aged 81 years, 5 months and 26 
days. Page 189. 

Abraham Myer, born 5 March 1762 ; died 1821. Page 189. 

Johannes Myer, died 5 January 1829; aged 82 years, lo months and 16 
days Page 189 

Isaac Post, died 31 July 1812 ; aged 51 years, 8 months and 5 days. 
Page 189 

Lieutenant Peter Post, died 12 March 1787; aged 43 years, 7 months 
/ and 25 days. Page 187. 

Isaac Snyder, died 26 January 1S29 ; aged 78 years, 5 months and 17 
days Page 290. His name is not on any list, but he was granted a Land 
Bounty Right for service in First Ulster Regmient. 

On the Mynderse farm one stone remains. It is at the grave of 

Henry Myer, died 30 September 1793 ; aged gi years Page 189. 

On the Spaulding place are the two graves of 

John VanLeuven, died 15 January 1S05 : aged 51 years, 10 months and 
8 days. Page 190. 


Andrew VanLeuven, died 23 May 1806 ; aged 51 years and 13 days. 
Page 190. 

On the Schoentag place, near Glasco is buried 

Abraham Osterhoudt, died 3 November 1817 ; aged 69 years, 6 months 
and II days Page 189. 

On the farm of Allen GrifTin, on the Hudson, at Flatbush are three 
graves : 

Joseph Davis, born 5 July 176 1 ; died 23 September 1836, page 188. 

John Osterhoudt, died 23 December 1813 ; aged 73 years, i month and 
23 days. Page 189. 

Peter L. Osterhoudt, died 10 November 1S09 ; aged 61 years, 5 months >^ 

and 29 d^ys. Page 189 

In the old cemetery in Plattekill, west of the church, is the largest 
cluster of Revolutionary graves in the town. Here lie 

Ensign Peter Brink, died 16 March 1818 ; aged 68 years, 10 months and 
15 days. Also in Fourth Ulster. Pages 187 and 200. 

Stephen Myer, born S November 1760 ; died 4 April 1841. Page 189. 

Peter B. Myer, born 12 June 1762 ; died 30 March 1841, Page 1S9. 

Tennis Myer, died 22 November 1S31 ; aged 76 years. Page 189. 

Wilhelmus France, " A Revolutionary Soldier," who died 13 July iSiS ; 
aged 93 years, 9 months and 26 days. Page 188. 

John C. Brink, died 30 June 1S43 ; aged 80 years, 4 months and 25 
days Page 1S7. 

Benjamin Myer, died 12 December 1819; aged 89 years, i month and 
21 days Page 189. 

Peter C. Brink, died 22 January 1839; aged 81 years, 3 months and 12 
days Page 1S7 

Benjamin Winne, died 2S April 1808 ; aged 54 years. Page 191 

Tjerck Burhans, died 25 November 1S32 ; aged 73 years, 4 months. 
Page 187. 

Jacob Conyes, died 27 February 1815 ; in his 83rd year. Page 1S7. 

Johannes Snyder, born 28 August 1750; died 15 October 1815. Page 

Just north of the Gilsinger mill at Mt. Marion lies 

Tjerck Low, died 8 May 18^4 ; aged 79 years, 4 months and 13 days. 
Page 189. 

On the Trumpbour farm at Mt. Marion is buried 

Cornelius Langendyke, died 2 September 1S3S ; aged So years and 
6 days Page 189. 

On the Francis Myer farm are the gra%'es of 

Lieutenant Tobias Myer, bora 9 February 1734 ; died 28 January 1S09. 
Page 187. 

Peter T. Myer, died 10 October 1S39 ; aged 77 years, i month and 28 
days Page i8g 

On the Cantine farm at Churchland rest 

Benjamin Myer Jr., born i November 1755 ; died 19 May 1800. Page 

Stephanus Myer, born 25 July 1725 ; died 7 May 1790. Page 1S9 

On the bank of the Hudson, on the grounds of John G. Myers, in a 
plot carefully tended lie the remains of 



John Wolven, who died 26 September 1798 ; aged 55 years, 6 months 
and 26 days Page 191. 

On the John W. Davis farm northeast of the West Shore station is the 
grave of 

John Post, who died 20 November 180-, aged 71 years, 5 months and 
15 days. Page 189. 

In the cemetery at Uniohville rests 

John Valkenburgh, who died 24 September 1827, aged S2 years, 2 
months and 20 days. Page 190. 
At the foot of Mt. Marion, on the farm of C. S. Lowther are buried 

Captain John Lucas DeWitt who died 27 May 1803, aged 72 years, 
I month and 9 days. Page 1S7. 

Abraham DeWitt, died 9 December 184S ; aged 82 years, 9 months and 
19 days Page 1S8 

On the farm of Larry Van Wart, at Bkie Mountain is the grave of 

Samuel Freligh, who died 29 September 1838, aged 83 years, 8 months 
and 28 days. Page 188. 

At the Greene county line, in the old cemetery on the borders of the 
Abeel and Saile farms north of Saxion repose : 

Hezekiah Wynkoop, " A soldier of the Revolution," who died 19 June 
1839, aged 89 years, i month and 22 days. Page 191. 

Christian Myer, died 31 May 1S17 ; aged 77 years, 9 months and 7 days. 
Page 189. 

Cornelius Myer, died 22 July 1828; aged 63 years, 9 months and iS 
days. Page 1S9 

At Saxton, west of the house of the late Colonel Christopher Fiero, is 
the grave of 

Henry Wells, who died i March 1824, aged 83 years and 2 months. 
Page 190 

South of Quarryville, on what was known as the Frank Stone farm, is 

found the grave of 

' Peter Hommel, who died i February 1828, aged 77 years, 3 months and 
I day. Page 1S9. 

North of Asbury, on the Trumpbour farm, is the grave of 

Valentine Trumpbour, who died 20 February 1830, in the 68th year of 
his a^e Page 190. 

In the old cemetery on the hill above West Camp landing are buried 

Guysbert (Gilbert; Dederick, died 5 September 1837 ; aged 85 years. 
Page 188. 

Jacob Trumpbout-, died 11 April 1824; aged 75 years, 3 months and 
3 days Page 190. 

Along the Hudson north of Maiden, and just above the brickyard of 
John J. Cooney, is the grave of 

Solomon Schutt, who died 27 April 1802, aged 78 years Page 190. 

On the adjoinining farm of E. P. Simmon, are two graves. 

Joseph Martin, who died i November 1825, aged 98 years, ii months 
and 6 days Page 189 

Christian Schutt, who died 10 March 1825, aged 64 years, and 4 days. 
Page 190. 

A little farther north along the river on the farm of the Friendship ice 
house are two graves, 


Jacobus Dederick, who died 21 March 1829, aged 86 years and 7 
months. Page 188. 

Harmon Dederick, who died 6 May 1S51, in the 88th year of his age. 
Page 188. 

Christian Schutt and Solomon Schutt each had additional service in 
Colonel Albert Pawling's Regiment of the Levies. Page 86. 

On the farm of the late Jeremiah O'Bryon, in Saxton, is the grave of 

William Myer, who died 21 July 1S40, aged 81 years, 11 months and 16 
days. Page 189. 

On the farm of Washington Myer, at Blue Mountain, is the grave of 

George Young, born 1722 ; died 1799. He served in Colonel Albert 
Pawling's Regiment of the Levies. Page 87. 

Ob the Judson Herrick farm, Pine Grove, rests 

John Wolven, who died 5 October 1826, aged 63 years, 9 months and 
4 days. Page 191. 

In the cemetery at the church in Asbury, are the remains of 

Rev. John Crawford, who died 7 March 1851, aged 91 years and 14 
days. He served in the Fourth Westchester Regiment. Page 214. 

Thus the graves of seventy-two of the more than 
two hundred and forty from the town of Saugerties 
in the Revohition are here identified. Colonel 
Johannis Snyder, of the First Ulster Regiment, 
under whom nearly all served hes in a well-cared- 
for grave in the churchyard of the First Reformed 
Church, in Kingston. The graves of Captains 
Dederick and DeWitt of this town are in the hst, 
but that of Captain Jeremiah Snyder is not known. 

Of these two hundred and forty soldiers and over 
there remained sixteen who were hving on Septem- 
ber 10, 1832. On that day the people of Kingston 
celebrated the fiftieth year after the close of the war 
of the Revolution by giving a dinner in their honor 
in Kingston at which ninety-six veterans of the 
Revolution assembled from all over Ulster county. 
They met at the court house at 2 p. m. and formed 
in hne, preceded by bands of music and followed by 
judges, court officials and citizens. The veterans 


uncovered their heads as they began their last 
march, and cheered Old Glory as it was unfurled. 
Their ages were from 68 to 92. Each veteran 
carried a cane and attempted the old miHtary step. 
Not a dry eye was in the mass of citizens on Wall 
street. Amid the roar of cannon the march to the 
dinner at the Kingston Hotel on Crown street was 
taken. But the ranks moved very slow. Most of 
the honored guests were over eighty years of age 
and before the hotel was reached some had to be 

An ox had been roasted whole and every thing 
was appropriate to such an occasion. Crown street, 
Kingston Hotel, its spacious yard and all the build- 
ings were packed. After the cloth was removed 
Hon. John Sudani, then the representative Ulster 
county orator, addressed the guests in his happiest 
vein, and his speech was long remembered as a 
masterpiece of the oratory of that day. Those 
present from Saugerties were Samuel Post, 7 2 ; 
Ephraim Myer, 73 ; Adam France, 75 ; Peter C. 
Brink, 75 ; John C. Brink and Adam Brink (twins), 
70; Cornelius Langendyke, 74; Hezekiah Wyn- 
koop, 83 ; Wilhelmus Emerick, 73 ; John Brink, 
72; Conrad Fiero, ^^\ Abraham DeWitt, 70; 
Joseph Davis, 71; William Myer, 74; Abram Low, 
68; Martin Post, 70. 

Before we conclude the remarkable record of the 
family of Christian Myer must be noticed. He was 
one of the Palatines of 17 10, and his home was at 
Churchland on the farm recently owned by the late 


Peter Cantine. Of the above seventy-two soldiers 
whose graves are identified eighteen are those 
of sons, grandsons and one great-grandson of 
Christian Myer. Nor is this all. There were a 
number of soldiers who served in the Revolution 
who were sons of his daughters. Still without the 
latter a record of eighteen from one family is with- 
out parallel. 

The accompanying illustration of the home of 
this patriotic family gives the house as it appears 
to-day. To a great extent it is altered from its 
appearance in Revolutionary days. 


Abeel, Capt. Anthony, 178, 1S4, 

Adams, William, 288. 
Algonquins, 10 
Allison, Col. Thomas, 64. 
Andros Indian treaty, 15 
Armpachlo's bergh, 102. 
Articles of Association, 122. 
Asbury, barbecue at. 154. 
Asbary, church, 297. 
Aspel, Tunis, So. 
Astor, John Jacob, 80, 236 

Backer, Lieut. Petrus, 189. 

Backus, Henry S., 31C-315. 

Baptist church. 297. 

Bailley, Gen., 187 

Barbecue at Asbury, 154. 

Barclay heights, 112, 

Barclay, Henry. 112, 276, 291, 295. 

Battelle & Renwick, 112. 

Beaver creek, 3, 81, 86, 87, 257-261. 

Beaver, Robert, 102. 

Berckenmeyer, Rev. William C, 

5S, 246. 
Bigelow, Asa, 106, 107, 2S6 
Big Vly, 19, 104, 108. 
Blue stone quarries, 295, 296. 
Bradford, Merritt, 2S4. 
Brainard, Nelson, 296. 
Brainard, Silas, 295. 
Brant, Joseph, 157, 158, 161, 180. 
Brick making, 260, 261, 289 
Brink, Capt Andrew, 68, 262, 266- 

274, 277. 
Brink, Charles, 24, 95 
Brink, Cornelius P., 80. 
Brink, Cornelius Lainbertsen, 5, 24, 


Brink, Huybert Lambertsen, 94. 

Brink, John, Jr., 22, 68, 69, 106, 275 

Brink, Ensign Petrus, 127. 

Brink, Peter H., 95 

Brinnier, William D.. 85. 

Burgoyne, Gen, John, no, 150, 
152, 154 

Burhans, Bareot, 68 

Burhans, Peter; Burhans, Samuel; 
Hurhans, Isaac ; Burhans, Abra- 
ham ; Osterhoudt, James ; 115. 

Burhans, Wilhelmus, 22, 68. 
Burr, Aaron, 87. 

Canoe hill, 88, 102. 

Cartrit's Kill, 91. 

Catskills, the Dutch Domine of the, 

149, 166, 167. 
Cedar Clipje, 81, 96. 
Churchland, 86, 91. 
Clark, Col. Edward, 112. 
Clement, William, 8t, 20S 
Clermont, the, 6S, 266-274. 
Coetus and Conferentie strife, 120. 
Continentals, the, i/)3 
Continental currency. 17O1 192. 
Country physicians, 203-209. 
Crapser, Milton, 97 
Crawford, Rev. John, 2S9 
Cregier, Capt. Martin, 6, 7, 71. 
Cunyes, William H., 160 

Davenport, Richard, 79. 
Daughters, American Revolution, 

baugerties Chapter, 66, 346-348. 
Dawes residence, 72, 219, 275. 
Debating societies, 237. 
Declaration of Independence, 128. 
Dederick, Capt. Matthew, 127, 140, 

Dederick, Christian, 9S. 
Dederick. James E., 98. 
Dederick, Myndert, 98. 
Demarest, Rev. James D , 119, 

25O, 320. 
DeKonde, Rev. Lambertus, 67,73, 

78, 120, 148, 192, 219, 249, 251, 320. 
DeWitt, Capt John Lucas, 127, 

140, 189 
DeWitt, Evert, 97 
DeWolfen, Gottfried. 104. 
Doll, Rev. George J L., 163, 2-19, 

Dowling, Alexander, 93. 
Dry goods, 23O. 
DuBois, Hiskia, 22. 72. 275. 
Dutch Domine of the Catskills, 

149, 166. 167. 
Dutch lanfjuage, 119, 284, 285. 
Dutch preaching, 53, 119, 284, 285. 
Dutch songs, 232, 324-345. 



Educational conditions, 197-202. 

Eelken's treaty, 9. 

Ehle, Rev. John Jacob, 52, 246. 

Eligh, Andries, 98. 

Eligh, Hans Ury 98. 

Ellinger, Mrs. 102. 

Esopus Indians, lo. 

Exemptions from military service, 

Eygenaar, Frederick, 85. 
Eygenaar, Petrus. 88. 
Eygenaar, Lieut. Petrus, 127. 

Falckner, Rev. Daniel, 52, 246. 
Farm life, 192-196, 210-217, 218- 

Fees, Hendrick, 75. 
Fennal, John, 88. 
Fiero, Dr. Abram, 208. 
Fiero, Christian, 116, 122, 277. 
Fiero, Col. Christopher, 97. 
Fiero, Cornelius, 261. 
Fiero, J. Newton, 97. 
Fiero, Luther, 102. 
Fiero, Mrs. Mary, 80. 
Fiero, Valentine, 99. 
Fiero, William, 81, 208. 
Finger, Chauncey P., 81, 261. 
First postmaster, 106. 
Flax, 221. 
Flowers, 223, 224. 
Fort Niagara, 177, 178-180. 
Eraser, Alfred W., 76, 102. 
Freligh, Hendrick, 78. 
Freligh, Rev. Moses, 78. 
Freligh, Rev. Peter, 78, 
Freligh, Rev. Solomon, 78. 
Freligh. Peter, 78. 
Fruits, 223. 

Fullerton tract, 31, 108, 109. 
Fulton, Robert, 68, 266 274. 

Gay, George A., 2S7. 
Gerlach, John Christopher, 43. 
Germantown church, 62, 247. 
Germond, Mrs. 86, 259. 
Genthner, John Michael, 74, 275. 
Gillespy, Major John, 307. 
Glenerie, 112. 

Grauberger. Philip Peter, 43. 
Groz, Rev. Philip, 52. 

Hardenbergh. Col. Johannes, 126. 
Hager, Rev. John F , 37, 51, z/i6. 
Hayes, John, 20. 
Hiawatha, 9 
Hoff, Cornelius, 88, lOi. 
Hommel, Abram E., 78, 261. 
Hommel, Hermanus, 23, 85. 
Hommel, Isaac, 84. 
Hommel, Johannes, 87. 

Hommel, Ury, 85. 

Hommel, William H., 78, 261. 

Hooghteling, Major Philip, 134, 

^ 139- 

Hoornbeek, 169, 172. 
Hunter, Gov. Robert, 34, 36, 38, 
39, 45- 

Indian battlefield, 11. 
Indian maize plantation, 71. 
Indian raids, 156 160, 161, 168-189. 
Industries, 60, 194-196, 218-238, 

Iroquois, 10, 11. 
Isham, Samuel, 106, 107, 286. 

Jan, Nachtc, 84, 161. 
Jordan, John J., 87. 
Johnson, Col. Guy, 178. 

Katsbaan, i, 3, 17, 323. 

Katsbaan church, 7L1, 75-7S, 119, 

161, 164. 245-256, 318^1. 
Katskill Indians, 8, 10. 
Katskill (Leeds), 27, 163, 164. 
Kaufman, Jacob, 80, 277. 
Kiersted, Dr. Christopher, 208, 

Kiersted, Dr. Christopher C, 209. 

Kiersted, John, 277. 

Kings Road, Old, 19, 23, 26, 85, 89, 

107, 191. 
Kingston Commons, 4, 21, 23, 53, 

75. 99. 109, I'll 276. 
Kocherihal, Rev. Joshua, 30, 37, 

48. 51, 55-59. 246. 
Krows, Frederick, 72, 284. 
Laflin, Matthew, 295. 
Lamb, Daniel, 260. 
Langendyke, Cornelius, 92. 
Legg, John, 113, 115. 
Legg, Samuel, 114. 
Levies, the, 143. 
Livingston, Robert 31. 
Livingston, Robert R., 263, 266- 

272, 276, 304. 
Lowther, C. S., 92. 
Luke, John, 99. 
Luyck, Petrus, 81. 

Maize plantation, 71. 

Making the impeding chain, 137, 

Maiden church, 297. 
Maiden turnpike, 107. 
Manck, Jacob, 43. 
Mancius, Rev. George W,, 52, 62, 

78, 119, 148, 247 319. 
Markle, Fredeiick 92. 
Markle, Matthias 97. 
Mauger Zaagertjes, 252. 



Mauterstock, Dcderick, loi, 102, 

Mauterstock, John H., 102. 
McGaw, Isaac, 294. 
McGee, Peter, 98. 
Meals and Hayes patents, 18-21. 

68, 69, 85, 86, 103, 105, 108, 113, 

Militia, the, 144, 147. 
Military service, exemptions from, 

Minklaer, Herman, 114. 
Minqiia, Johannes, 23. 
Mohegans, 10. 
Monk, John, 88. 
Montreal, 182-186. 
Montross. Adam, 260. 
Mower, Jeremiah, ic2. 
Mower, Johannes, 85. 
Mower, Nicholas, 98. 
Mowerse, Peter, 102. 
Mt. Airy, 2. 
Mt. Marion, 2. 
Muddah Kill, the, 91, 92. 
Muddy Kill, the, 102. 
Myer, Benjamin, 92. 
Myer, Christian, 84. 
Myer, Christian, 92, 258, 358. 
Myer, Ephraim, 151. 
Myer, Ephraim I, 79, 215. 
Myer. Francis. 93. 
Myer, Ensign Hendrick, 127. 
Myer, Dr. Jesse, 92, 
Myer, Johannes, 22. 74, 275. 
Myer, Johannes (Oom Hans), 87, 

89, 91, no, 152. 
Myer, John Snyder, 79. 
Myer, Jonathan, 79. 
Myer, Luther, 23, 85, 215, 
Myer, Peter B., 295. 
Myer, Peter W., 85. 
Myer, Petrus, 22.. 74, 275. 
Myer, Sherwood D., 74, 216, 275. 
Myer, Lieut. Tobias, 127. 
Myer, Wells, 87, 89. 
Myer, William, S6. 152. 
]\Iyer, William, 107. 
Myers, John G., 73, 92, 108, 155, 
Mynderse, Garret, 279. 
Mynderse, Myndert, 20, 22, 23, 69, 

219, 275. 

Naval stores. 35, 36, 4c, 41. 
Negro Dutch church, 250. 
Newkirk, Ane, 23. 
Newkirk, Dr. Coonradt, 208. 
Niagara, fort, 177, 178 180. 
Niessen, Sergeant, 7, 14. 

Old Kings Eoad, 19, 23, 26, 85, 89, 

107, IQI. 

Old sawyer, 5, 6, 17, 25, 68, 257. 

Orphan children apprenticed, 35. 

Osterhoudt, Cornelius, 79. 

Osterhoudr, Hendrick, 88 

Osterhoudt, James; Burhans, 
Peter; Burhans, Samuel; Bur- 
hans, Isaac ; Burhans, Abraham , 

Osterhoudt, I leut. Petrus, 127 
Osterhoudt, Tunis, 93. 
Ostrander, Gideon P., 98. 
Ostrander, Rev. Dr. Henry, 79, 119, 

165, 250, 282-285, 320. 
Overbaugh, John S., 97. 

Palatines, 28-59. 
Palatine dissatisfaction, 39. 
Palatines, names of, 46, 47. 
Palatines, number of, 44, 46. 
Palatine statement ol grievances, 

Parks, Elisha, 296. 
Paulison grant, 24, 93. 
Peoples road, 88. 
Persen, Cornelius, 73, 80, 81, 83, 

88, 107, 121, 161, 191, 229, 230, 

236, 278. 
Persen, John, 20, i6g, 71, 75, 1^2, 

Persen's store, 2, 80, S3. 88, 121, 

148, 161, .191, 220, 230, 236. 
Petitions to Gov. Clinton, 241, 242. 
Pidgeon, Francis, ic8. 
Pidgeon, Mrs Frank, 15S, 216. 
Pietersen, Jacob, 25. 
Pier, Arent Tunis, 112. 
Plattekill church, 297. 
Polhemus, David. 92. 
Post, Abraham, 22, 72, 73, 87, 121, 

148, 191 275, 2/8 

Post, Sergeant Abraham, 65, 108. 

Post, Isaac, 22, 70, 73, 275, 279. 

Post. Jan. 22, 72, 275, 278. 

Post, Jecobus, 22, 72, 275. 

Post, Peter B , 91. 

Post, Lieut Peter, 160. 

Post, Peter P., 277, 27S. 

Post, Samuel, 277. 

Post's hotel, 72, 73, 87, 121, 148, 

191, 284 
Postmael, Jan Jansen, 21, 22. 
Postmaster, the first, 106. 

Quick, Feuben, So. 

Reghtmyer, Coenradt, 23, S4. 
Reghtmyer, Hcrmanus, 23, 7S. 
Regiment, First Ulster, 126, 139, 

142, 149, 154, 158 160, 240. 
Regiment, Foiirth Ulster, 139, 141, 





Rio Alto Stock Farm, 23, 86. 

Ripley, Charles, 294. 

Road, Old Kings, 19, 23, 26, 85, Sg, 

107, 191 
Robert Chism's plantation, 93. 
Rondebergh, 115. 
Rowe, Frederick, Jr., 97, 174. 
Rovve, Wilhelmus, 98, 
Runnip, John, 169-180 
Russell, Frederick T., 20, 279. 
Russell, James, 72. 275. 
Russell, Jeremiah, 287. 
Russell, William F., 287 

Salisbury, Capt. Sylvester, 240 
Sap boiling, 234. 

Saratoga, Saugerties troops at, 153. 
Saugerties academy, 254. 
Saugerties Chapter, D. A. R., 66, 

Saugerties library, 282, 284 
Saugerties, Methodist church, 289. 
Saugerties Reformed church. 254- 

Saugerties Telegraph, 254, 295. 
Saw creek, 3, 17. 19, 25, 75, 99, loi. 
Sawyer, the old, 5, 6, 17, 25, 68, 

Sax, Addison, 8r, 260. 
Sax, Evert, 23, 80. 
Sax, John P., 80. 
Schoonmaker, Egbert, 22, 70, 72, 

Schoonmaker, Hendrick, 113. 
Schoonmaker, John T., 277. 
Schoonmaker, Mynderse, 113. 
Schoonmaker, Peter P., 70, 216. 
Schoonmaker, Samuel, 22, 70. 
Schoonmaker, Tjerck, 113. 
Schoharie, claimed by Palatines, 36. 
Schuneman, Rev. Johannes, 148, 

163, 249, 319 
Schutt, Myndert, 104, 106, loS. 
Scow ferry, 112 
Scram, Frederick, 93. 
Shank's Ben, 169. 
Shearing, 220, 226 
Sheffield, Joseph B , 113, 293. 
Short, Adam, 88 
Shoub, Johannes. 98. 
Singing schools, 237 
Snyder, Capt Benjamin, 133, 181, 

219, 262, 277. 
Snyder, Christian, 85. 
Snyder, Ebas, 79, 84, 16S-190. 
Snyder, Elisha, 277 
Snyder, Hans Martin, 251. 
Snyder, Isaac, 91. 
Snyder, Captain Jeremiah, 84, 97, 

127, 140, 160, 168-190, 1S9, 240, 

244 357- 

Snyder. Colonel Johannis, 126, 141, 
142, 149, 154, 158, 160, 189, 239, 
240, 29Q-307, 357. 

Snyder, Maria, 87. 

Snyder, I^ioah, 87. 

Snyder, Peter, 92. 

Snyder, Peter 1 , 87. 

Snyder, Peter V,, 88. 

Snyder, Zachariah, 99. 

Soap making, 235 

Social life, 232 

Soldier's dinner, 357. 

Spaulding, Charles A., 114. 

Spellman, Thomas, 87 

Spinning and weaving, 221, 227, 

St. Mary's church. 297. 

Steene Herte fonteyne, 99, 100. 

Stock Farm, Rio Alto, 23, 86. 

Sudam, John, 35S. 

Swart, Lawrence, 115. 

Tappen, Christopher, assaulted, 

Tappen journal, 129-139. 

Tawasentha. 9. 

TenBroeck, Gen. Peter, 105, 15I, 

^i53i 155- 

Terwilliger, Martm, 257. 

Threshing, 235. 

'J'ivoli ferry, 68. 

Tobacco, 220. 

Top, Jan, 83, 191. 

Trappmg. 236. 

Traphagen grant, 24, 93. 

Treaty of peace, 18S. 

Trinity Episcopal church, 297. 

Trumpbour, Nicholas, 23. 

Trumpbour, Johannes, 80. 

Turkey point, 114. 

Ulster Iron Works. 293. 
Ulster Palladium, 254, 295. 
Ulster Star, 254, 295. 
Ulster Telegraph, 254, 295. 
Unionville, 87, lOi. 
Ury, ii2. 

Valk, Johannes, 86. 
Valk, Jonah, 277. 
Valk, Wiihelmus, 88. 
Valk William, T02. 
Valkenburgh, Hieronymous, 87. 
Valkenburgh, John, 87. 
Valkenburgh, Peter M., 81. 
Valkenburgh, Stephen V ., 81. 
Valkenburgh. William, 81, 
Vaughan's expedition, 73, 105, 155. 
Van Driessen, Rev. Johannes, 62. 

Van Hoesen's mill, 260. 



Van Keuren, Ephraim, 87. 

Van Leuven, Andries, 114. 

Van Leuven, Peter, 114. 

Van Schaick, Anthony, 160, 244. 

Van Steenberg-, Nathan, 84. 

Van Steenberg, John, 107. 

Van Steenberg, Thomas, 108. 

Van Vlierden, Rev. Petrus, 250, 

285, 2S6, 320 
Van Wart, Larry, 259. 
Vegetables, 223. 
Veteran's dinner, 357. 

Wanton island, 1 1, 104, log. 
Washburn, George W., 19. 
Washburn, Richard C, 19, 113. 
Weaving, 221, 227, 228. 
Weiser, Capt. John Conrad, 61. 
Wells, Sergeant Cornelius, 152. 
Wells, Samuel, 97. 
West Camp, i. 33. 34-S9» 257* 
West Camp churchk 50-54, 59, 148. 
Westerlo, Rev. Eilardus, 163, 249, 

Whitaker, Egbert, 115. 

Whitaker James, 115. 
White oak forest, 75, loi. 
Winedecker, Capt. Hartman, 6[. 
Winne, Aaron, 97. 
Winne, Lawrence, 97 
Winne, Petrus, 24, 92, 94. 
Wolven, Abraham, 277, 
Wolven. Major Dan, 73, 104, 105. 
Wood. Edward, 113. 
Wood, John. 20. 
Woodstock Glass Company, 288. 
Wynkoop, Major Adrian, 134, 142. 
Wynkoop, Cornelius, 277. 
Wynkoop, Evert, 23, 86. 
Wynkoop, Lieut. Evert, 127. 
Wynkoop, Judge Henry, 260. 
Wynkoop, Hezekiah, 277, 
Wynkoop, Mynderse, 92. 
Wynkoop. Russell. S6, 260. 
Wynkoop Capt. Tobias, 64, 65, 86. 
Wynkoop, Tobias, 151. 

Young, Johannes, 84. 

Zenger, John Peter, 48 




JUN 14 1902 

JUN. 14 1902 


i K)/ 


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